University of California

Small-Scale Marketers: Economic Opportunities, Quality & Safety

Postharvest Technology for Small-Scale Produce Marketers Economic Opportunities, Quality & Food Safety
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Stock #21; $35.00/copy

Authors: Lisa Kitinoja and James Gorny, April 1999

Description: This book is the result of many years of fieldwork as the authors worked as consultants in the field of postharvest horticultural handling and processing technology. It was written to provide answers to the many questions the authors were asked as they visited small-scale growers, produce packers, handlers, shippers and marketers throughout the United States and in a wide range of developing countries.

 

 

 

Table of Contents:

Part I – Fresh Handling Technologies
Chapter 1 – Introduction to Part I
  Types of postharvest losses and quality problems
  Return on Investment (ROI)
  Common practices contributing to quality deterioration
  Worksheets on costs, benefits, and ROI
  References
Chapter 2 – Pre-harvest Practices
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Selection of cultivars
  Sources of seeds and planting materials
  Cost/benefits, ROI for new cultivars
  Cultural practices that enhance quality
  Maximizing sun penetration & ventilation
  Fertilization and irrigation
  Adding value
  Costs/benefits, ROI for pre-harvest practices
  Sources of equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 3 – Harvesting and Preparation for Market
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Importance of maturity indices
  Maturity indices
  When to harvest
  Measuring maturity and quality
  Harvesting tools and containers
  Field packing
  Costs/benefits, ROI for field packing
  Sources of harvesting equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 4 – Packinghouses Operations and Packaging Practices
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  The packinghouse
  Dumping
  Pre-sorting
  Cleaning/washing
  Trimming/topping
  Waxing
  Sizing/Grating
  Bunching/wrapping
  Postharvest treatments
  Ranch Packing
  Costs/benefits, ROI for storing/grading
  Sources of packing equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 5 – Containers and Packaging Material
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Packaging Containers
  Packaging inserts, fillers and liners
  Labeling
  Costs associated with produce packing and packaging
  Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Determination of the most beneficial atmosphere
  MAP design
  Film selection
  New and emerging MAP technologies
  Costs/benefits, ROI for use of plastic crates
  Sources of packaging equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 6 – Temperature and Relative Humidity Management
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Temperature management
  Cooling Methods
  Room cooling
  Forced air cooling
  Evaporation cooling
  Hydro-cooling
  Chilling injury
  Use of ice
  Alternative cooling strategies
  Relative humidity control
  Costs/benefits, ROI for maintaining the cold chain
  Sources of cooling equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 7 – Storage Practices and Structures
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Simplified Recommended Temperature/RH groups
  Compatibility groups
  Storage Structures
  Insulation
  Storage of root, tuber and bulb crops
  Costs/benefits, ROI for underground storage
  Sources of storage equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 8 – Produce Transportation
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Transportation methods
  Refrigerated transport
  Stacking patterns
  Bracing the load
  Costs/benefits, ROI for use of ice during transport
  Sources of transportation equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 9 – Pest Management
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Common postharvest disease
  Postharvest IPM during preharvest and harvest
  Maturity at harvest and pest management
  Temperature and RH management
  Postharvest treatments
  Heat and cold
  Sanitation
  Pesticides
  Biological control
  CA/MA
  Costs/benefits, ROI for postharvest IPM
  Sources of pest management equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 10 – Food Safety for Fresh Horticultural Produce
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Food safety risks associated with produce
  Food safety hazards during production
  Sanitary postharvest handling of produce
  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
  HACCP Model
  Information resources
  Sources of food safety equipment and supplies
  References
Worksheets for Part I:
  1. Basic information on overhead costs, expected yields, grades, losses, market price by grade
  2. Comparison of Costs
  3. Comparison of Expected Benefits
  4. Recovery of Invested Capital
  Sample calculations for Worksheet 4
Part II: Small-scale Processing Technologies
Chapter 11 – Introduction to Part II
  Typical quality problems and sources of losses
  Worksheets for Part II
  Processing Methods for reducing perishability or adding value
  Information sources for food processing
  References
Chapter 12 – Fresh and DON’Ts
  Production Preparation
  Unit operations in fresh-cut processing
  Treatments for extending shelf life
  Sources of fresh-cut equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 13 – Produce Drying
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Cultivars and commodities best suited for drying
  Pretreatments
  Preparation for Processing
  Blanching
  Sulfuring
  Recipes for fruit dips
  Drying temperatures and times
  Drying Methods
  Solar drying
  Solar driers
  Forced-air dehydrators
  Packaging and Storage
  Costs/benefits, ROI for dehydration
  Sources of drying equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 14 – Canning and Bottling Specialty Products
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Preparation for processing
  Canning and bottling methods
  Canning/bottling containers
  Processed products
  Regulation affecting processing
  Packaging
  Sources of containers
  Co-packers
  Costs/benefits, ROI for preservation methods (jam production)
  Sources of canning/bottling equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 15 – Food Safety for processing horticultural products
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Good Manufacturing Practices
  Sanitation procedures
  Monitoring
  HACCP
  References
Worksheets for Part II:
  5. Basic Information on Yields,Grades, Losses, Market Prices
  6. Comparison of Costs
  7. Comparison of Expected Benefits
  8. Recovery of Invested Capital
Part III: Small-Scale Marketing Strategies
Chapter 16 – Introduction to Part III
  Expanding your marketing options
  Marketing options for horticulture procedures
  Marketing versus selling
  Marketing information
  References
Chapter 17 – Destination Handling
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Loading and unloading
  Postharvest handling at destination markets
  Temporary storage
  Ripening, conditioning and de-greening
  Display indoors/outdoors
  Costs/benefits, return on investment for ripening practices
  Sources of marketing equipment and supplies
  References
Chapter 18 – Wholesale Produce Marketing
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  Terminal produce markets
  Local retail produce markets
  Wholesale to processing
  Industrial food service customers
  Specialty food shops
  Restaurant and hotels
  Costs and benefits of wholesale marketing options
  Worksheet 9: Wholesale marketing options
  References
Chapter 19 – Direct Retail Produce Marketing
  General DOs and DON’Ts
  General information on retail marketing
  Farmers’ markets
  Roadside stands and farm shops
  Pick-Your-Own and U-Pick operations
  Marketing cooperatives (co-ops)
  Costs and benefits of retail marketing options
  Worksheet 10: Retail marketing options
  References
Chapter 20 – Alternative Marketing Strategies
  Community Supported Agriculture
   Subscription or memberships farms
  DOs and DON’Ts for CSA or subscription farming
  Resources, periodicals, books and associations
  References
Appendix A: Assessing Postharvest Losses:
  Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology
  Components and sample questions
  Example questionnaires
  CSAM Worksheet
Appendix B: Recommended Temperature and Relative Humidity Conditions for Storage of Selected Horticulture Produce
Appendix C: MAP Recommendations and Requirements for Selected Commodities
Appendix D: Contact Information for Supplies of Small-scale Postharvest Technology, Tools, Equipment and Supplies

College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Postharvest Technology Center
Department of Plant Sciences

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