University of California

Fruit English

Pear, Bartlett

Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality

Pear

Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Adel A. Kader
Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis

Maturity & Quality

Maturity Indices

'Bartlett' pears attain best eating quality if picked at the mature-green stage and ripened off the tree since they become mealy if ripened on the tree.

California ‘Bartlett' pear maturity standards utilize a combined flesh firmness/soluble solids content (SSC) index that is further modified by fruit size and skin color (if yellowish green, no firmness or SSC limits).

Minimum SSC Maximum Flesh Firmness (Pounds-Force)1
Fruit Diameter
2 3/8" - 2 ½"
Fruit Diameter
>2 ½"
<10% 19.0 20.0
10% 20.0 21.0
11% 20.5 21.5
12% 21.0 22.0
13% [No Maximum]  [No Maximum]

1Penetration force with 8 mm (5/16 inch) tip.

Quality Indices

  • Fruit shape, size, and freedom from insect damage, mechanical injuries (impact, compression, and/or vibration bruising), decay, and other defects
  • Sweet taste, pleasant aroma, and juicy, buttery texture are desired eating characteristics of ripe pears (flesh firmness range between 2 and 4 pounds-force)

Temperature & Controlled Atmosphere

Optimum Temperature

-1 to 0°C (30 to 32°F)

Optimum Relative Humidity

90 to 95% Relative Humidity

Rates of Respiration

Temperature 0°C (32°F) 2°C (36°F) 5°C (41°F) 20°C (68°F)
ml CO2/kg·hr 2-3 4-5 6-8 15-35

To calculate heat production multiply ml CO2/kg·hr by 440 to get Btu/ton/day or by 122 to get kcal/metric ton/day.

Rates of Ethylene Production

Temperature -1 to 0°C (30 to 32°F) 5°C (41°F) 10°C (50°F) 20°C (68°F)
µl C2H4/kg·hr 0.1-0.5 2-4 5-15 20-100

Responses to Ethylene

Mature-green ‘Bartlett' pears can be treated with ethylene at harvest [100 ppm ethylene for 24 to 48 hours at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F)] to ensure uniform ripening within 4 to 6 days once fruit are warmed for ripening. The "at harvest" treatment is often referred to as "conditioning". Fruit which has been cold stored for 3 weeks will ripen uniformly without ethylene conditioning. These pears can also be ripened in the presence of ethylene gas (100 ppm ethylene) at 18 to 22°C (64 to 72°F).

Responses to Controlled Atmospheres (CA)

Optimum CA 1 to 3% O2 + 0 to 3% CO2; for California-grown ‘Bartlett' pears, 1.5 to 2% O2 + 1 to 5% CO2 are recommended for long-term storage of early- and mid- season harvested fruits. For late-season pears, CO2 should be kept below 1% because of the fruit's greater sensitivity to CO2 injury (core and flesh browning).

CA conditions slow the rates of respiration, ethylene production, color change from green to yellow, and softening of pears. Scald development and decay incidence are suppressed under CA.

Storage potential of ‘Bartlett' pears at -1 to 0°C (30 to 32°F) and 90-95% RH can be as long as 3 months in air and 6 months in CA.

Temperature & Controlled Atmosphere Photos

bartlett_controlled_atmospheres1

Title: Responses to Controlled Atmospheres 1

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_controlled_atmospheres2

Title: Responses to Controlled Atmospheres 2

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

Bartlett_responses_to_ethylene

Title: Responses to Ethylene

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

Disorders

Physiological and Physical Disorders

Senescent Scald. Dark-brown skin discoloration begins as small spots and develops into large areas of skin turning brown after long term storage; brown skin may slough off. Prompt cooling and maintenance of optimum fruit temperature minimize this disorder. Occurs when fruit become senescent.

Superficial Scald. Diffuse brown skin discoloration occurs after several months of storage and during ripening after storage. Scald inhibitors, such as ethoxyquin (not available in Calif.), may be used on pears that are stored longer than 3 months. Controlled-atmosphere storage delays scald incidence and severity.

Watery Breakdown. Losses from this disorder result from a rapid enzymatic flesh breakdown (excessive softening) that occurs sometimes during storage, but mostly during subsequent ripening. Prompt and thorough cooling and maintenance of optimum temperatures of -1 to 0°C (30 to 32°F) will minimize losses due to watery breakdown.

Pink Calyx. Cool growing temperatures can result in a "pink calyx" fruit breakdown and premature ripening of ‘Bartlett' pears.

CA-related. Exposure of pears to unfavorable atmospheric compositions (levels of O2 below and/or CO2 above those indicated above as optimum CA) can induce physiological disorders and failure to ripen upon removal from CA conditions. CA-stressed pears exhibit flesh browning, develop cavities in damaged tissues, and undergo ethanolic fermentation, which results in accumulation of acetalydehyde, ethanol, and ethyl acetate, and development of off-flavors.

Vibration (Roller) Bruising. Symptoms include brown spots or bands on the skin where rolling, rubbing, or vibration occurred, and damage is usually not visible below the surface. This problem can be minimized by immobilizing the pears (such as tight-fill packing) or by packaging them into plastic bags within the shipping containers during transport.

Impact Bruising. Brown discoloration of the flesh results from impact bruising; severity increases with the height of the fruit drop. Partially-ripe and ripe pears are more susceptible to impact bruising than mature-green pears.

Pathological Disorders

Blue Mold Rot. Caused by Penicillium expansum which is a wound parasite that readily colonizes cuts and punctures on pears. Avoiding mechanical injuries is the best way to avoid this fungus.

Gray Mold Rot. Caused by Botrytis cinerea. Infections occur during blossoming and remain latent until the pears begin to ripen at which time the fungus can grow into the fruit, especially at the calyx and stem ends. Botrytis can also enter the fruit through wounds created during postharvest handling. Control strategies include minimizing mechanical damage, prompt cooling and maintaining optimum temperature during transport and storage.

[For more information, see our publication “Management of Fruit Ripening”, available for purchase using our Order Form.]

Disorders Photos

bartlett_abrasion_damage1

Title: Abrasion Damage (1)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_abrasion_damage2

Title: Abrasion Damage (2)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_blue_mold_rot

Title: Blue Mold Rot

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_boron_damage

Title: Boron Damage

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_cladosporium_rot1

Title: Cladosporium Rot (1)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_cladosporium_rot2

Title: Cladosporium Rot (2)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_CO2_DAMAGE

Title: CO2 Damage

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlett_core_breakdown

Title: Core Breakdown

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis 

bartlettFreezingDamage

Title: Freezing Damage

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_grey_mold_rot

Title: Grey Mold Rot

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_impact_bruising

Title: Impact Bruising

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_insect_damage1

Title: Insect Damage (1)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_insect_damage2

Title: Insect Damage (2)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_scuffing_damage

Title: Scuffing Damage

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_senescent_scald

Title: Senescent Scald

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_superficial_scald

Title: Superficial Scald

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

barlett_vibration_bruising

Title: Vibration (Roller) Bruising

Photo Credit: Jim Thompson, UC Davis 

bartlett_vibration_damage

Title: Vibration Damage (1)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_vibration_damage2

Title: Vibration Damage (2)

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

bartlett_watery_breakdown

Title: Watery Breakdown

Photo Credit: Don Edwards, UC Davis

Date

May 1996

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How to Cite

Author(s) names. Initial publication or update date (located at the top). Title. Link to the specific Produce Fact Sheet webpage (Accessed date)

Example: Cantwell, M. and T. Suslow. 2002. Lettuce, Crisphead: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality. 

http://ucanr.edu/sites/Postharvest_Technology_Center_/Commodity_Resources/Fact_Sheets/Datastores/Vegetables_English/?uid=19&ds=799 (Accessed January 18, 2014).

College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Postharvest Technology Center
Department of Plant Sciences

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