Fruit Physiological Disorders
Stonefruit: Internal Breakdown (Chilling Injury)
H. Crisosto and E. J. Mitcham. UC Davis Postharvest Specialists.
Importance: Chilling injury (CI) or Internal breakdown (IB) is the main limiting factor in the shipping and consumption of peaches and nectarines. This is the most frequent complaint by consumers and wholesalers and the main barrier to consumption.
Causes: CI is triggered when fruit are stored below 8°C. Onset of symptoms is more rapid and severity of symptoms greater when fruit are exposed to temperatures between 2 and 8°C (36 and 46°F) (the ‘killing temperature range’). CI symptoms normally appear after fruit are moved from cold storage to room temperatures and while some ripening is occurring. For this reason, this problem is usually experienced by consumers, not the grower and/or packer. Stone fruit cultivars vary greatly in susceptibility to CI and some of them do not develop symptoms. In most cases, early-season peach and nectarine cultivars are least susceptible and late-season cultivars are most susceptible. Among plum cultivars, there is no seasonal pattern of susceptibility. Recently developed cultivars in the market from different breeding programs are showing less susceptibility to CI.
In the meantime, follow these guidelines:
Crisosto, C.H., Mitchell, F.G. and Ju, Z. (1999). Susceptibility to chilling injury of peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars grown in California. HortScience 34, 1116-1118.
Crisosto, C.H., Garner, D., Andris, H.L. and Day, K.R. (2004). Controlled delayed cooling extends peach market life. HortTechnology 14, 99-104.
Crisosto, C.H., Crisosto, G.M., and Day, K.R. (2008) Market life update for peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars grown in California. Advances in Horticultural Science, 22, 201-204.
Crisosto, C.H., Lurie, S. and Retamales, J. (2009) Stone fruits. In: Yahia, E.M. (ed.), Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 287-315.
Martínez-García, P.J., Peace, C.P., Parfitt, D.E., Ogundiwin, E.A., Fresnedo-Ramírez, J., Dandekar, A.M., Gradziel, T.M. and Crisosto, C.H. (2011) Influence of year and genetic factors on chilling injury susceptibility in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Euphytica, 185, 267-280. DOI 10.1007/s10681-011-0572-1.
Dhanapal, A.P., Martínez-García, P.J., Gradziel, T.M. and Crisosto, C.H. (2012) First genetic linkage map of chilling injury susceptibility in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit with SSR and SNP markers. Journal of Plant Science and Molecular Breeding 1, 1-12.
Pons Puig, C., Dagar, A., Ibanez, C.M., Singh, V., Crisosto, C.H., Friedman, H., Lurie, S. and Granell, A. (2015) Pre-symptomatic transcriptome changes during cold storage of chilling sensitive and resistant peach cultivars to elucidate chilling injury mechanisms. BMC genomics, 16, 245-279.
Crisosto, C.H. and Kader, A.A. (2016) Peach. In Gross, K.C., Wang, C.Y. and Saltveit, M. (eds.) The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. USDA Agriculture Handbook 66, pp. 466-470.
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Example: Crisosto, C. H. and E. J. Mitcham. 2020. Asian Pear: Flesh Spot Decay (FSD). http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Commodity_Resources/Fruit_Physiological_Disorders/?uid=11&ds=822 (Accessed March 25, 2020).