University of California

Section 2



Image: Postharvest Physiology of Horticultural Commodities


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  6. HERTOG, M.L.A.T.M., D.R. Rudell, R. Pedreschi, R.J. Schaffer, A.H. Geerared, B.M. Nicoli, and I. Ferguson. 2011. Review- where systems biology meets postharvest. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 62:223-237.
  7. HUBER, D.J. 1987. Postharvest senescence: An introduction to the symposium. HortScience 22:853-854.
  8. KADER, A.A., 2013. Postharvest technology of horticultural crops- an overview from farm to fork. Ethiop. J. Appl. Sci. Technol. (special issue No. 1):1-8.
  9. KING, G.A. and E.M. O'Donoghue. 1995. Unraveling senescence: new opportunities for delaying the inevitable in harvested fruit and vegetables. Trends in Food Science and Technology 6:385-389.
  10. LIPTON, W.J.  1987. Senescence in leafy vegetables. HortScience 22:854-859.
  11. MAYAK, S. 1987. Senescence in cut flowers. HortScience 22:863-865.
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  14. OWINO, W.O. and H. Ezura. 2011. Biotechnology in postharvest research of fruits: prospects and achievements. Stewart Postharvest Review 2011, 1:4, 7pp.
  15. PAULL, R.E., N.J. Chen, H. Turnno, B. Inkura, and P. Wn. 2011. Tropical fruit genomes and postharvest technology. Acta Hort. 906:237-244.
  16. PENTZER, W.T. and P.H. Heinze. 1954. Postharvest physiology of fruits and vegetables. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 5:205-244.
  17. PRATT, H.K. and L.L. Morris. 1958. Some physiological aspects of vegetable and fruit handling. Food Tech. Australia 10:407, 409, 411, 413, 415, 417.
  18. RHODES, M.J.C. 1980. The physiological basis for the conservation of food crops. Prog. Food & Nutr. Sci. 4(3-4):11-20.
  19. ROMANI, R.J. 1987. Senescence and homeostasis in postharvest research. HortScience 22:865-868.
  20. SACHER, J.A. 1973. Senescence and postharvest physiology. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24:197-224.
  21. SHEWFELT, R.L. 1986. Postharvest treatment for extending the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. Food Technol.40 (5):70-72,74,76-78,80,89.
  22. ULRICH, R. 1958. Postharvest physiology of fruits. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 9:385-416.



  1. BOLLARD, E.G. 1970. The physiology and nutrition of developing fruits. In:  A.C. Hulme (ed.), The biochemistry of fruits and their products, Vol. 1, Academic Press, NY, pp. 387-425.
  2. COOMBE, B.G. 1976. The development of fleshy fruits. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 27:207-228.
  3. CRANE, J.C.1964. Growth substances in fruit setting and development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 15:303- 326.
  4. LEOPOLD, A.C and P.E. Kriedemann.1975. Plant growth and development. McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY, 545 p.
  5. NITSCH, J.P. 1970.  Hormonal factors in growth and development. In: A.C. Hulme (ed.), The biochemistry of fruits and their products, Vol.1, Academic Press, NY, pp. 427-472.
  6. NITSCH, J.P. 1971. Perennation through seeds and other structures; Fruit development In: F.C .Steward (ed.), Plant physiology - a treatise, Vol. VI A, Chpt. 4, Academic Press, NY, pp. 413-501.




  1. ADDICOTT, F.T. 1969. Aging, senescence and abscission in plants, phytogerontology. HortScience 4:114-116.
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  3. BEEVERS, L. 1976. Senescence. In: J. Bonner and J.E. Varner (eds.), Plant Biochemistry, 3rd ed., Academic Press, NY, pp. 771-794.
  4. BEHNKE, J.A., C.W. Finch, and G.B. Moment (eds.). 1978. Biology of Aging, Plenum Press, NY, 388 p.
  5. BIALE, J.B. 1954. The ripening of fruit. Sci. Amer. 190:40-46.
  6. BIALE, J.B. 1964. Growth, maturation and senescence in fruits. Science 146:880-888.
  7. BIALE, J.B.  1975.  Synthetic and degradative processes in fruit ripening. In: N.F. Haard and D.K. Salunkhe (eds.), Symposium: Postharvest biology and handling of fruits and vegetables. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, pp. 5-18.
  8. BONGHI, C. and L. Trainotti. 2006. Genomic tools for a better understanding of fruit ripening process. Stewart Postharvest Review 2:3, 10pp.
  9. BRADY, C.J. 1987. Fruit ripening. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 38:155-178.
  10. DILLEY, D.R. and I.D.  Wilson. 1992. Molecular biological investigations of gene expression attending fruit ripening: current status and future prospects. HortTechnology 2:294-301.
  11. FERGUSON, I.B. 1984. Calcium in plant senescence and fruit ripening - review.  Plant, Cell and Environment. Vol. 7: 477-480.
  12. FRENKEL, C. 1978. Role of hydroperoxides in the onset of senescence processes in plant tissue. In: H.O. Hultin and M. Milner (eds.), Postharvest biology and biotechnology, Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, CT, pp. 433-448.
  13. FRENKEL, C., R. Dyck, and N.F. Haard. 1975. Role of auxin in the regulation of fruit ripening. In: N.F. Haard and D.K. Salunkhe (eds.), Symposium: Postharvest biology and handling of fruits and vegetables, AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, pp. 19-34.
  14. GIOVANNONI, J. 2001. Molecular biology of fruit maturation and ripening. Annu Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52:725-749.
  15. GIOVANNONI, J.J. 2007. Fruit ripening mutants yield insights into ripening control. Current Opinion in Plant Biol. 10:283-289.
  16. GORTNER, W.A., G.G.  Dull, and B.H.  Krauss.  1967.  Fruit development, maturation, ripening and senescence: A biochemical basis for horticultural terminology. HortScience 2: 141-144.
  17. GRIERSON, D., G.A. Tucker, and N.G. Robertson. 1981. The molecular biology of ripening. In: J. Friend and M.J.C. Rhodes (eds.). Recent advances in the biochemistry of fruit and vegetables. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 149-160.
  18. LABAVITCH, J.M. 1981. Cell wall turnover in plant development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 32:385-406.
  19. LESHEM, Y.Y. 2000. Nitric oxide in plants: occurrence, function, and use.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 154 pp.
  20. LESHEM, Y.Y., A.H. Halevy, and C. Frenkel. 1986. Processes and control of plant senescence. Elsevier, New York, 215 p.
  21. LIEBERMAN, M. (ed.). 1983. Postharvest physiology and crop preservation. Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, NY, 572 p.
  22. LYONS, J.M.  1975. The influence of temperature on fruit ripening. Coll. In. C.N.R.S. No. 238, Paris, pp 17-21.
  23. MCGLASSON, W.B. 1978. Role of hormones in ripening and senescence. In:  H.O. Hultin and M. Milner (eds.), Postharvest biology and biotechnology, Food and Nutrition Press, Westport CT, pp. 77-96.
  24. NATH, P., A. P. Sane, P.K. Triverdi, V.A. Sane, and M.H. Asif. 2007. Role of transcription factors in regulating ripening, senescence and organ abscission in plants. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007, 2:6, 14pp.
  25. PAREEK, S., E.M. Yahia, O.P. Pareek, and R.A. Kaushik. 2011. Postharvest physiology and technology of Annona fruits. Food Res. Int’l. 44:1741-1751.
  26. PAULL, R.E. and N.J. CHEN. 2000. Heat treatment and fruit ripening. Postharv. Bio/. Techno/. 21:21-37.
  27. PAULL, R.E. and N.J. Chen. 2004. Tropical fruit Postharvest: the impact of biotechnology. Acta Hort. 632: 303-308.
  28. PAULL, R.E. and N.J. Chen. 2010. Fruit softening during ripening-causes and regulation. Acta Hort. 864:259-26
  29. PECH, J.C., A. Bernadac, M. Bouzayen, and A. Latche, 2005. Use of genetic engineering to control ripening, reduce spoilage, and maintain quality of fruits and vegetables. P. 397-438, in:  S. Ben-Yehoshua (ed). Environmentally friendly technologies for agricultural produce quality. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  30. PICTON, S., J.E. Gray, and D. Grierson. 1995. Ethylene genes and fruit ripening. In: P.J. Davies (ed). Plant hormones, 2nd edition: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 372-394.
  31. POOVAIAH, B.W. 1985. Role of calcium and calmodulin in plant growth and development.  HortScience 20:347-352.
  32. POOVAIAH, B.W. 1986. Role of calcium in prolonging storage life of fruits and vegetables. Food Technol. 40(5):86-89.
  33. POOVAIAH, B.W., G.M. Glenn, and A.S.N. Reddy. 1988. Calcium and fruit softening: physiology and biochemistry. Hort. Rev. 10:107-152.
  34. PRASANNA,V., T.N. Prabha, and R.N. Tharanathan. 2007. Fruit ripening phenomena - an overview. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 47:1-19.
  35. RHODES, M.J.C. 1980. The maturation and ripening of fruits. In: K.V. Thimann (ed.), Senescence in Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 157-205.
  36. ROMANI, R.J. 1975. Mitochondrial function and survival in relation to fruit ripening and the climacteric. Coll. In. C.N.R.S. No. 238, pp. 229-233.
  37. ROMANI, R.J. 1975. Ribonucleic acid metabolism in ripening fruit. Coll. In. C.N.R.S. No. 238, pp. 291- 298.
  38. SMOCK, R.M. 1970. Environmental factors affecting ripening of fruits. HortScience 5:37-39.
  39. SPEIRS, J. and C. Brady. 1991. Modification of gene expression in ripening fruit. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18:519-532.
  40. SPURR, A.R. 1970. Morphological changes in ripening fruit. HortScience 5:33-35.
  41. STREIF,J., D. Kittemann, D.A. Neuwald, R. McCormick, and H. Xuan. 2010. Pre- and post-harvest management of fruit quality, ripening, and senescence. Acta Hort. 877: 55- 68.
  42. TOIVONEN, P.M.A. 2007. Fruit maturation and ripening and their relationship to quality. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007, 2:7, 5pp.
  43. WATADA, A.E., R.C. Herner, A.A. Kader, R.J. Romani, and G.L. Staby. 1984.  Terminology for the description of developmental stages of horticultural crops. HortScience 19:20-21.



  1. APPLEMAN, C.O. and R.G. Grown. 1946. Relation of anaerobic to aerobic respiration in some storage organs with special reference to the Pasteur Effect in higher plants. Amer. J. Bot. 33:170-181.
  2. BIALE, J.B. 1970. Respiration of fruits. In: W. Rhuland (ed.), Handbuch der Pflanzenphysiologie, XII: 536-586, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
  3. BIALE, J.B. and D.E. Barcus.1970. Respiration patterns in tropical fruits of the Amazon Basin. Trop. Sci. 12:93 106.
  4. BIALE, J.B. and R.E. Young. 1962. The biochemistry of fruit maturation. Endeavour XXI: 164-174.
  5. BIALE, J.B. and R.E. Young. 1981. Respiration and ripening in fruits -- Retrospect and prospect. In: J. Friend & M.J.C. Rhodes (eds.), Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables, Academic Press, London, pp.139.
  6. BLANKE, M.M 1991. Respiration of apple and avocado fruits. Postharvest News & Information 2:429- 436.
  7. DAVIES, D.D. (ed.). 1980. Biochemistry of plants -- A comprehensive treatise, Vol. 2 -- Metabolism and respiration. Academic Press, NY, 687 p.
  8. FORWARD, D.F.  1965. The respiration of bulky organs. In:  F.C. Steward  (ed.), Plant Physiology -- A Treatise, Vol. IV A, Chpt.3, Part 2, Academic Press, NY, pp. 311-376.
  9. HOBSON, G.E. 1979. What factors are involved in the onset of ripening in climacteric fruit?  Cur. Adv. Plant Sci. 37:1-11.
  10. MATHOOKO, F.M. 1996. Regulation of respiratory metabolism in fruits and vegetables by carbon dioxide. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 9:247-264.
  11. PEPPELENBOS, H.W., L.M.M. Tijskens, J. van't  Levin, and E.C. Wilkinson. 1996. Modeling oxidative and fermentative carbon dioxide production of fruits and vegetables.  Postharvest Biol.  Technol. 9:283-295
  12. RHODES, M.J.C.1970.The climacteric and ripening of fruits. In: A.C. Hulme (ed.), The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Academic Press, NY, pp. 521-533.
  13. ROMANI, R.J.1972. Stress in the postharvest cell: The response of mitochondria and ribosomes. J. Food Sci. 37:513-517.
  14. SOLOMOS, T. 1977. Cyanide-resistant respiration in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28:279-298.
  15. SOLOMOS, T. 1983. Respiration and energy metabolism in senescing plant tissues.  In:   M. Lieberman (ed.), Postharvest Physiology and Crop Preservation, Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, NY, pp. 61-98.
  16. SOLOMOS, T. and J.B. Biale.1975.  Respiration and fruit ripening.  Coll. In. C.N.R.S. No. 238, pp. 221- 229.
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E.  ETHYLENE and 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)

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  68. WATKINS, C.B. 2006. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) based technologies for storage and shelf life extension. Int. J. Postharv. Technol. Innov. 1: 62-68.
  69. WATKINS, C.B. 2007. The effects of 1-MCP on the development of physiological storage disorders in horticultural crops. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007, 2:11, 6pp.
  70. WATKINS, C.B. 2008. Overview of 1-methylcyclopropene trials and uses for edible horticultural crops. HortScience 43: 86-94. 
  71. WATKINS, C.B. 2010. Managing physiological processes in fruits and vegetables with inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis and perception. Acta Hort. 880:301-310.
  72. WILLS, R.B.H., M.A. Warton, and V.V.V. Ku. 2000. Ethylene levels associated with fruit and vegetables during marketing. Austral. J. Exp. Agr. 40:465-470.
  73. YANG, S.F. 1985. Biosynthesis and action of ethylene. HortScience 20(1):41-45.
  74. YANG, S.F. 1987. Regulation of biosynthesis and action of ethylene. Acta Hort. 201:53-59.
  75. YANG, S.F. and N.E. Hoffman. 1984. Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35:155-189.
  76. YANG, S.F. and H.K. Pratt. 1978. The physiology of ethylene in wounded plant tissue.  In:  G. Kahl (ed.), Biochemistry of wounded plant tissues, Walter de Gruyter and Co., Berlin, pp. 595-622.
  77. YOO, S., Y. Cho, and J.Sheen.2009. Emerging connections in the ethylene signaling network (review). Trends in Plant Sci. 14:270-27.

F. Responses to Light

  1. BUCHERT, A.M., M.E.G. Lobato, N.M. Villarreal, P.M. Civello, and G.A. Martinez. 2011. Effect of visible light treatments on postharvest senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:355-361.
  2. MARTINEZ-SANCHEZ, A., J.A. Tudela, C. Luna, A. Allende, and M.I. Gill. 2011. Low oxygen and light exposure affect quality of fresh-cut romaine lettuce. Postharv. Boil. Technol. 59:34.42.
  3. ZHAN, L., Y. Li, J. Hu, L. Pang, and H. Fan. 2012. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of fresh-but romaine lettuce exposed to high intensity light. Innoc. Food Sci Emerg Technol. 14:70-76.
College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Postharvest Technology Center
Department of Plant Sciences

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