University of California

Fruit Produce Facts English

Return to Fact Sheet


Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality


Adel A. Kader

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis

Mangosteen PDF

Maturity & Quality
Maturity Indices

Skin color change to reddish-purple is the primary maturity index for mangosteen. The fruit has a persistent calyx at the stem end and is picked with the peduncle attached. The aril (pulp) separates from the rind in ripe fruit.

Quality Indices
  • Fruit size
  • Shape
  • Color
  • Freedom from defects (skin cracks and blemishes, latex staining, insect damage)

The inedible pericarp is hard and the edible pulp is white, soft, juicy, and consists of 5 to 8 segments (similar to citrus fruits). Soluble solids content ranges from 17 to 20% and titratable acidity ranges from 0.7 to 0.8% (pH = 4.5 to 5.0).

Maturity & Quality Photos

Title: Maturity

Photo Credit: Adel Kader, UC Davis 

Title: Quality

Photo Credit: Adel Kader, UC Davis 

Title: Ripe High Quality Fruit

Photo Credit: Marita Cantwell, UC Davis 

Temperature & Controlled Atmosphere
Optimum Temperature

13 ± 1°C (56 ± 2 °F), storage potential = 2-4 weeks, depending on cultivar and ripeness stage.

Optimum Relative Humidity


Rates of Respiration

6-10 ml CO2/kg·hr at 20°C (68°F); climacteric respiratory pattern.

To calculate heat production multiply ml CO2/kg·hr by 440 to get Btu/ton/day or by 122 to get kcal/metric ton/day.

Rates of Ethylene Production

3-30 µl C2H4/kg·hr at 20°C (68°F)

Responses to Ethylene

Exposure to 100 ppm ethylene for 24 hours at 20°C (68°F) accelerates ripening (color change to dark purple and softening of the pulp).

Responses to Controlled Atmospheres (CA)

Limited published information indicates a useful CA of 5% O2 + 5 to 10% CO2 for up to 4 weeks.

Temperature & Controlled Atmosphere Photos

Title: Internal Breakdown

Photo Credit: Marita Cantwell, UC Davis 

Physiological and Physical Disorders

Chilling Injury. Symptoms include darkening and hardening of the skin and increased susceptibility to decay when the fruit is moved to higher temperatures following storage at less than 10°C (50°F) for longer than 15 days or at 5°C (41°F) for more than 5 days.

Translucent Flesh. Symptoms are internal and include flesh changes from white to translucent and textural changes from soft to firm and crisp. This disorder may result from mechanical injuries, nutrient imbalance, and/or excessive water uptake into the flesh.

Rind Hardening. Mechanical damage (compression or impact bruising) to the fruit during harvesting and handling often results in hardening of the rind, which may be combined with hardening and translucency of the pulp (one or more segments).

Pathological Disorders

Decay may be caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Diplodia spp., Pestalotia flagisettula, Phomopsis spp., or Rhizopus spp.

Disorders Photos

Title: Corking and Scarring

Photo Credit: Marita Cantwell, UC Davis 

Title: Internal Symptoms of Physical Damage

Photo Credit: Marita Cantwell, UC Davis 


May 2001

Use of Materials

The UC Postharvest Technology Center grants users permission to download textual pages (including PDF files) from this World Wide Web site for personal use or to reproduce them for educational purposes, but credit lines and copyright notices within the pages must not be removed or modified.

Except for these specified uses, no part of the textual materials available on the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site may be copied, downloaded, stored in a retrieval system, further transmitted or otherwise reproduced, stored, disseminated, transferred or used, in any form or by any means, except as permitted herein or with the University of California's prior written agreement. Request permission from UC Postharvest Technology Center. Distribution for commercial purposes is prohibited.

The information in this fact sheet represents our best understanding of the current state of knowledge at the time of the latest update, and does not represent an exhaustive review of all research results. Links to any of these UC Postharvest Technology Center pages are permitted, but no endorsement of the linking site or products mentioned in the linking page is intended or implied by such a link.

How to Cite

Author(s) names. Initial publication or update date (located at the top). Title. Link to the specific Produce Fact Sheet webpage (Accessed date)

Example: Cantwell, M. and T. Suslow. 2002. Lettuce, Crisphead: Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality. (Accessed January 18, 2014).

Top of page



Webmaster Email: