All contents of this World Wide Web site copyright ©1997-2022 by the Regents of the University of California, unless otherwise indicated. All rights reserved.
The Regents of the University of California make no representation or warranties with respect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties or merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, the Regents of the University of California reserve the right to revise this website's content and/or associated documents and to make changes from time to time without obligation of the Regents of the University of California to notify any person of such revision or change.
Use of Materials
The UC Postharvest Technology Center grants users permission to download textual pages (including PDF files) from this World Wide Web site for personal use or to reproduce them for educational purposes, but credit lines and copyright notices within the pages must not be removed or modified.
Except for these specified uses, no part of the textual materials available on the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site may be copied, downloaded, stored in a retrieval system, further transmitted or otherwise reproduced, stored, disseminated, transferred or used, in any form or by any means, except as permitted herein or with the University of California's prior written agreement. Request permission from UC Postharvest Technology Center. Distribution for commercial purposes is prohibited.
Links to any of these UC Postharvest Technology Center pages are permitted, but no endorsement of the linking site or products mentioned in the linking page is intended or implied by such a link.
Photographs & Figures
Photographs and figures on the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site are copyrighted by the Regents of the University of California, unless otherwise noted.
Photographs: Photographs may not be used in connection with the promotion of any commercial product or in "for sale" Web sites and no exceptions will be granted for such uses. In addition, they may not be used and distributed in software, photo sets, or other electronic media, or in any printed publication without written consent.
Web sites: For educational purposes, any web site can link directly to a photo file (or its descriptive page) on the UC Postharvest Technology Center web site to display photographs and associated text. This is the preferred method for displaying UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site photos. Please notify us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you link to us.
Educational institutions and governmental agencies: Linking directly to the photo page on the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site is the preferred method for displaying these photos. However, up to 20 images may be copied to an educational institution's or governmental agency's Web site for display as long as the following conditions are met:
- Copyright statement cannot be removed from original UC Postharvest Technology Center photo.
- Credit must be given on or adjacent to the photo: "Used with permission from University of California Postharvest Technology Center."
- UC Postharvest Technology Center should be notified of this use at email@example.com.
- A link to the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site (http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu) for more information should be included within the educational institution's or governmental agency's Web site.
- The educational institution or governmental agency is responsible for copying the photo files from the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site.
- University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR) publications.
- Journal articles or UC ANR handouts by University of California authors.
- Newspaper or magazine articles about University of California research or extension activities.
- In limited numbers (12 only) for publications (including electronic publications) by other land grant colleges or public agencies. However, in no case should PTC photos comprise more than 25% of the total images in a publication.
- In limited numbers to UC ANR authors who are publishing for-sale publications through publishers other than UC ANR. In no case should UC Postharvest Technology Center photos comprise more than 25% of the total images in a publication, or exceed 30 images.
The photos may not be used in connection with the promotion of a commercial product or in "for-sale" publications or software produced by private companies.
To use photos in publications other than UC ANR publications, permission must be requested in writing from UC Postharvest Technology Center.
Figures or line drawings may be used if the source is properly credited—unless a line drawing is copyrighted by another source and was used by the UC Postharvest Technology Center Program with permission. For permission to use line drawings from the Web site, send a request to UC Postharvest Technology Center.
The UC Postharvest Technology Center grants users permission to download handouts from presentation slides (including PDF files) from this World Wide Web site for personal use or to reproduce them for educational purposes, but credit lines, copyright notices, and dates of presentation must not be removed or modified.
Except for these specified uses, no part of the handouts available on the UC Postharvest Technology Center Web site may be copied, downloaded, stored in a retrieval system, further transmitted or otherwise reproduced, stored, disseminated, transferred or used, in any form or by any means, except as permitted herein or with the University of California's prior written agreement. Request permission from UC Postharvest Technology Center. Distribution for commercial purposes is prohibited.
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MAKE NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE CONTENTS HEREOF AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Further, the Regents of the University of California reserve the right to revise this software and/or documentation and to make changes from time to time in the content hereof without obligation of the Regents of the University of California to notify any person of such revision or change.
Precautions for Using Pesticides
Pesticides are poisonous and must be used with caution. READ THE LABEL BEFORE OPENING A PESTICIDE CONTAINER. Follow all label precautions and directions, including requirements for protective equipment. Apply pesticides only on the crops or in the situations listed on the label. Apply pesticides at the rates specified on the label or at lower rates if suggested in this publication. In California, all agricultural uses of pesticides must be reported. Contact your county agricultural commissioner for further details. Laws, regulations, and information concerning pesticides change frequently.
Legal Responsibility. The user is legally responsible for any damage due to misuse of pesticides. Responsibility extends to effects caused by drift, runoff, or residues.
Transportation. Do not ship or carry pesticides together with food or feed in a way that allows contamination of the edible items. Never transport pesticides in a closed passenger vehicle or in a closed cab.
Storage. Keep pesticides in original containers until used. Store them in a locked cabinet, building, or fenced area where they are not accessible to children, unauthorized persons, pets, or livestock. DO NOT store pesticides with foods, feed, fertilizers, or other materials that may become contaminated by the pesticides.
Container Disposal. Dispose of empty containers carefully. Never reuse them. Make sure empty containers are not accessible to children or animals. Never dispose of containers where they may contaminate water supplies or natural waterways. Consult your county agricultural commissioner for correct procedures for handling and disposal of large quantities of empty containers.
Protection of Animals and Plants. Many pesticides are toxic to useful or desirable animals, including honey bees, natural enemies, fish, domestic animals, and birds. Crops and other plants may also be damaged by misapplied pesticides. Take precautions to protect desirable species from direct exposure to pesticides and from contamination due to drift, runoff, or residues. Certain rodenticides may pose a special hazard to animals that eat poisoned rodents.
Posting Treated Fields. For some materials, restricted entry intervals are established to protect field workers. Keep workers out of the field for the required time after application and, when required by regulations, post the treated areas with signs indicating the safe re-entry date. Check with your county agricultural commissioner for latest restricted entry interval.
Preharvest Intervals. Some materials or rates cannot be used in certain crops within a specified time before harvest. Follow pesticide label instructions and allow the required time between application and harvest.
Permit Requirements. Many pesticides require a permit from the county agricultural commissioner before possession or use. When such materials are recommended, they are marked with an asterisk (*) in the treatment tables or chemical sections of this publication.
Processed Crops. Some processors will not accept a crop treated with certain chemicals. If your crop is going to a processor, be sure to check with the processor before applying a pesticide.
Crop Injury. Certain chemicals may cause injury to crops (phytotoxicity) under certain conditions. Always consult the label for limitations. Before applying any pesticide, take into account the stage of plant development, the soil type and condition, the temperature, moisture, and wind. Injury may also result from the use of incompatible materials.
Personal Safety. Follow label directions carefully. Avoid splashing, spilling, leaks, spray drift, and contamination of clothing. NEVER eat, smoke, drink, or chew while using pesticides. Provide for emergency medical care IN ADVANCE as required by regulation.
Notice of Trademarks
To simplify information, the UC Postharvest Technology CenterWeb pages sometimes use trade names of products. No endorsement of named products is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products that are not mentioned.
Apple and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Adobe Acrobat Reader is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
All other trademarks are property of their respective holders.
It is the policy of the University of California not to engage in discrimination against or harassment of any person, employed by or seeking employment with the University, or in any of its programs or activities, on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, gender, gender expression, gender identity, pregnancy, physical or mental disability, medical condition (cancer-related or genetic characteristics), genetic information (including family medical history), ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services, as well as state military and naval service. This policy is intended to be consistent with the provisions of applicable state and federal laws and University policies.
University policy also prohibits retaliation against any employee or person seeking employment for bringing a complaint of discrimination or harassment pursuant to this policy. This policy also prohibits retaliation against a person who assists someone with a complaint of discrimination or harassment, or participants in any manner in an investigation or resolution of a complaint of discrimination or harassment. Retaliation includes threats, intimidation, reprisals, and/or adverse actions related to employment or to any of its programs or activities.
In addition, it is the policy of the University of California to undertake affirmative action, consistent with its obligations as a Federal Contractor, for minorities and women, for persons with disabilities, and for covered veterans. The University commits itself to apply every good faith effort to achieve prompt and full utilization of minorities and women in all segments of its workforce where deficiencies exist. These efforts conform to all current legal and regulatory requirements, and are consistent with University standards of quality and excellence.
In conformance with Federal regulations, written affirmative action plans shall be prepared and maintained by each campus of the University of California, by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by the Office of the President, and by the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Such plans shall be reviewed and approved by the Office of the President and the Office of the General Counsel before they are officially promulgated.
Inquiries regarding the University’s equal employment opportunity policies may be directed to the Affirmative Action Contact, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2801 Second Street, Davis, CA 95618 (530) 750-1318.