University of California

Selected Postharvest References


Image: Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Commodities


  1. BALDWIN, E.A., A. Plotto, and K. Goodner. 2007. Shelf-life versus flavour-life for fruits and vegetables: how to evaluate this complex trait. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007, 1:3, 10pp.
  2. CAMPBELL, C.A.1994. Handling of Florida-grown and imported fruits and vegetables. HortScience 29:975 978.
  3. HEWETT, E.W., S. Lurie, and J.N. Wuensche (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Postharvest Technology in the Globalisation of Horticulture. Acta Hort. 768, 80 articles.
  4. HERREGODS, M. (ed.). 1989. International symposium on postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables. Acta Hort. 258:1-667.
  5. HERTOG, M.L., J. Lammertyn, B. Deketelaere, N. Scheerlinck, and B.M. Nicolai. 2007. Managing quality variance in the postharvest food chain. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 18: 320-332.
  6. KADER, A. and M. Cantwell. 2007. Produce quality rating scales and color charts. Postharvest Horticulture Series No. 23 (revised May, 2007), Postharvest Technology Center, University of California, Davis.
  7. KUSHWAHA, L., R. Serwatowski, and R. Brook (eds.). 1995. Harvest and postharvest technologies for fresh fruit and vegetables. Proceedings of the International Conference; Guanajuato, Mexico; Feb.20-24, 1995, 652 p.
  8. LI, Z., N. Wang, and C. Vigneault. 2006. Electronic nose and electronic tongue in food production and processing. Stewart Postharvest Review 2006, 4:7, 6pp.
  9. NASH, M.J. 1978. Crop conservation and storage in cool temperature climates.  Pergamon Press, NY, 396 p.
  10. NUNES, M.C.N. 2008. Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Blackwell Publ., Ames, Iowa.
  11. O BRIEN, M., R.B. Fridley and L.L. Claypool. 1978. Food losses in harvest and handling systems for fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 21:386-390.
  12. PANTASTICO, Er. B. and O.K. Bautista. 1976. Postharvest handling of tropical vegetable crops. HortScience 11:122-124.
  13. THOMPSON, J. and A. Kader. 2009. From the farm to your table, a consumer’s guide to fresh fruits and vegetables. Publ. 21643, Agric. Nat. Resour., Univ. Calif., Oakland, CA, USA, 16pp. 
  14. WALLNER, S.J. and P.A. Ferretti. 1978. Postharvest handling and storage of vegetables and berries for fresh market. Pennsylvania State Univ., Agric. Ext. Serv. Special Circ. 247, 15 p.
  15. YADOLLAHI, A., K. Arzani, and H. Khoshghalb. 2010. The role of nanotechnology in horticultural crops postharvest management. Acta Hort. 875:49-56.



  1. ASAE. 1984. Fruit, nut, and vegetable harvesting mechanization. ASAE Publ. 5-84, Amer. Soc. Agric.Eng., St. Joseph, MI, 411 p.
  2. CARGILL, B.F. and G.E. Rossmiller (eds.). 1969. Fruit and vegetable harvest  mechanization - technological implications, RMS Report 16, Rural Manpower Center, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, 838 p.
  3. FAIRBANK, W.C., L.L. Ede, H. Johnson, Jr., D.A.  Luvisi, and R.A. Neja. 1987. Night picking. Calif. Agric. 41(1&2):13-16.
  4. GRIERSON, W. and W.C. Wilson.  1983.  Influence of mechanical harvesting on citrus quality: cannery vs. fresh fruit crops. HortScience 18:407-409.
  5. KADER, A.A. 1983. Influence of harvesting methods on quality of deciduous tree fruits. HortScience 18:409-411.
  6. KASMIRE, R.F. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on quality of nonfruit vegetables. HortScience 18:421-423.
  7. LI, B, C. Vigneault and N. Wang. 2010. Research development of fruit and vegetable harvesting robots in China. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:13, 8p.
  8. MORRIS, J.R. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on quality of small fruits and grapes. HortScience 18:412-417.
  9. MORRIS, J.R. 1990. Fruit and vegetable harvest mechanization. Food Technol. 44(2):97-101.
  10. PETERSON, D.L. 1992. Harvest mechanization for deciduous tree fruits and brambles. HortTechnology 2:85-88.
  11. SARIG, Y. 1993. Robotics of fruit harvesting - a state-of-the-art review. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 54:265-280.
  12. STUDER, H.E. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on the quality of fruit vegetables. HortScience 18:417-421.
  13. VIGNEAULT, C. and N. Wang. 2010. Perspectives of robotic technology in production, harvesting and postharvest processes of horticultural produce. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:10, 4 p.



  1. ANON. Various dates. Standardization of fruits and vegetables. Organization  for  Economic  Cooperation and Development, Paris.
  2. ANON. Various dates. U.S. Standards for grades of fresh fruits and vegetables. USDA, Food Safety and Quality Service, Washington, D.C.
  3. ANON. 1983. Fruit and vegetable quality control standardization. Extracts from the Administrative Code - Title 3 of California, Dept. Food and Agric., Sacramento, CA, 154 p.
  4. KONDO, N. 2010. Automation on fruit and vegetable grading system and food traceability. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:145-152.
  5. LI, Z, C. Vigneault and N. Wang. 2010. Automation and robotics in fresh horticulture produce packinghouse. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:13, 7p.
  6. MALDONADO, A. I.L. 2010. Automation and robots for handling, storing and transporting fresh horticulture produce. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:14, 6p.



  1. AMARANTE, C. and N.H. Banks. 2001. Postharvest physiology and quality of coated fruits and vegetables. Hort. Rev. 26:161-238.
  2. BALDWIN, E.A1994. Edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: past, present, and future. p. 25-64, In: J.M. Krochta et al (eds.). Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA.
  3. BALDWIN, E.A., M.O. Nisperos-Carriedo, and R.A. Baker. 1995. Use of edible  coatings  to preserve quality of lightly (and slightly) processed products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35:509-524.
  4. Baldwin, E.A., R.D. Hagenmaier, and J. Bai (editors). 2012. Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality, Second Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  5. BANKS, N.H., J.G. M. Cutting, and S.E. Nicholson. 1997. Approaches to optimizing surface coatings for fruits. N.Z.J. Crop Hort Sci 25:261-272.
  6. BEN YEHOSHUA, S. 1985. Individual seal-packaging of fruit and vegetables in plastic film - a new postharvest technique. HortScience 20:32-38.
  7. DEBEAUFORT, F., J.A. QuezadaGallo, and A. Voilley. 1998. Edible films and coatings: tomorrow’s packagings: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 38:299-314.
  8. HAGENMAIER, R.D. 1998. Wax microemulsion formulations used as fruit coatings. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Coc. 111: 251-255.
  9. HAGENMAIER, R.D. and P.E. Shaw. 1992. Gas permeability of  fruit coating waxes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117:105-109.
  10. HARDENBURG, R.E.1967. Wax and related coatings for horticultural products. A bibliography. USDA,ARS 51-15.
  11. JAMES, K. and A. McGregor. 2000. Surface coatings for fresh fruit and freshly prepared fruits and vegetables. Postharv. News Info 11:45N-47N.
  12. KROCHTA, J.M., E.A.  Baldwin, and  M.  Nisperos-Carriedo (eds.). 1994. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA, 379 p. 
  13. LOPEZ, O., M. A. García and N.E. Zaritzky.2010. Novel sources of edible films and coatings. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:2, 8 p.
  14. McHUGH, T.H. J.M. Krochta. 1994. Permeability properties of edible films. p. 139-187, In: J.M. Krochta et al. (eds.). Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA.
  15. NUSSINOVITCH, A. and S. Lurie. 1995. Edible coatings for fruits and vegetables. Postharvest News and Information 6:53N-57N.
  16. PARK, H.J. 2000. Development of advanced edible coatings for fruits. Trends in Food Scie &Technol. 10:254-260.
  17. PEREZ- GAGO, M.B., G.A. González-Aguilar, and G.I. Olivas.2010. Edible coatings for fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:4, 14p.
  18. ROJAS-GRAU, M.A., R. Soliva-Fortuny and O. Martín-Belloso.2010. Edible coatings: past, present and future. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:1, 5p.



  1. ANON. 1961. Standardization of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables.  Symp. Proc., Sprenger Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 224 p.
  2. ANON. 1973. Packing stations for fruits and vegetables. In. Inst. Refrig., Spec. Bull., 307 p.
  3. ARORA, A. and G.W. Padua.2010. Review: Nanocomposites in food packaging. J. Food Sci. 75: R43-R49.
  4. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau. 1984. ASEAN returnable container systems report. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 85 p.
  5. BAKKER, M. (ed.). 1986. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 746 p.
  6. BOUSTEAD, P.J. and J.H. New.1986. Packaging of fruit and vegetables: a study of models for the manufacture of corrugated fiberboard boxes in developing countries. TDRI Publication G199, TORI, London, 44 p.
  7. Bradley, E.L., L. Castle, and Q. Chaudhry. 2011. Applications of nanomaterials in food packaging with a consideration of opportunities for developing countries. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:604-610.
  8. FERNANDEZ, A., P. Piconet, and E. Lloret. 2010. Cellulose-silver nanoparticle hybrid materials to control spoilage-related microflora in absorbent pads located in trays of fresh-cut melon. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 142:222-228.
  9. GENTRY, J.P., F.G. Mitchell, and N.F. Sommer. 1965. Engineering and quality aspects of deciduous fruit packed by volume filling and hand placing methods. Trans. ASAE 8:584-589.
  10. GUILLOU, R. 1963. Settling packed fruit by vibration. Trans. ASAE 6:190,191,194.
  11. HARDENBURG, R.E. 1966. Packaging and protection. In: Protecting our food supply. USDA, Agric. Yb 1966:102-117.
  12. HARDENBURG, R.E.1974. Use of plastic films in maintaining quality of fresh fruits and vegetables during storage and marketing. ASHRAE Symposium Ch-73-7, pp. 19-29.
  13. HEISS, R.1970. Principles of food packaging. FAO and P. Keppler Verlag KG, West Germany, 332 p.
  14. INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTER. 1988. Manual on the packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables. ITC, UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, Switzerland.
  15. MARSH, K.and B. Bugusu. 2007. Food packaging–roles, materials, and environmental issues. J. Food Sci.72: R39-R55.
  16. MILLER, W.R. and A.J. Bongers. 1983. Western European preferences for sizing, packaging, and unitizing selected fresh fruits and vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rept. No. 1135, 7p.
  17. MITCHELL, F.G., N.F. Sommer, J.P. Gentry, R. Guillou, and G.  Mayer. 1968. Tight-fill fruit packing. Univ. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Circ. 548, 24 p.
  18. O BRIEN, M., J.E. Gentry and R.C. Gibson. 1965. Vibrating characteristics of fruits as related to in-transit injury. Trans. ASAE 8:241-243.
  19. O BRIEN, M. and R. Guillou. 1969. An in-transit vibration simulator for fruit handling studies. Trans. ASAE 12:94-97.
  20. PITMAN, R.M. and M.E. Wright. 1973. Lateral pressures in bulk bins. Trans. ASAE 16:632-635, 638.
  21. SACHAROW, S. and R.C. Griffin. 1970. Food packaging. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT.
  22. SAYERS, J.C.A. and I. J. Sneddon. 1986. The use of returnable containers for horticultural produce. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau and National Materials Handling Bureau, Australia, 87 p.
  23. SELKE, S.E. 1990. Packaging and the environment: Alternatives, trends and solutions. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA 178 pp.
  24. STOKES, D.R. and G.W. Woodley.1974. Standardization of shipping containers for fruits and vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 991, 118 p.
  25. THOMPSON, J.F., D.C. Slaughter, and M.L. Arpaia. 2008. Suspended tray package for protecting soft fruit from mechanical damage. Appl. Eng. Agr. 24:71-75.
  26. VIGNEAULT, C., J. Thompson, and S. Wu. 2009. Designing container for handling fresh horticultural produce. Postharv. Technol. Hort. Crops 2:25-47.
  27. YANG, F.M., H.M. Li, F. Li, Z.H. Xin, L.Y. Zheng, and Q. H. Hu. 2010. Effect of nano- packing on preservation quality of fresh strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. Fengxiang) during storage at 4C. J. Food Sci. 75: C236-C2.



Link to the interactive Refrigerated Warehouse Energy Tool developed by Paul Singh, Ph.D. (requires flash player)

  1. ARCE, J. and V.E. Sweat. 1980. Survey of published heat transfer coefficients encountered  in food refrigeration processes. ASHRAE Trans. 86:235-260.
  2. BARGER, W.R. 1963. Vacuum precooling - a comparison of the cooling of different vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 600, 12 p.
  3. BENNETT, A.H. 1964. Precooling fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 7:265-266, 270.
  4.  BENNETT, A.H., J. Soule, and G.E. Yost. 1965. A prototype commercial forced-air precooler. USDA, ARS 52-9,11 p.
  5. BOYETTE, M.D., L.G. Wilson and E.A. Estes. 1989. Design of room cooling facilities: structural and energy requirements. North Carolina State Univ. Coop. Ext. Bull. AG 414-2, 15 p.
  6. BROSNAN, T. and D. Sun. 2001. Precooling techniques and applications for horticultural products, a review. Int. J. Refrigeration 24: 154-170.
  7. CANTWELL, M.I., A. Thangaiah. 2012. Acceptable cooling delays for selected warm season vegetables and melons. M.I. cantwell and D.P.F. Alemeida Acta Hort. 934:77-84.
  8. TRAGETHON, D. 2011. Vacuum cooling-The science and practice. Int’l Inst. Of Ammonia Refrigeration, Tech. Paper # 6, 22pp.
  9. ELANSARI, A.M. 2009. Design aspects in precooling process of fresh produce. Fresh produce 3: 49-57.
  10. GUILLOU, R. 1963. Pressure cooling for fruits and vegetables. Amer. Soc. Heat., Refriger. and Air Cond. Engr. J. 5(11):45- 49.
  11. ISENBERG, F.M.R., R.F. Kasmire, and J.E. Parson. 1982. Vacuum cooling vegetables. Cornell Univ. Coop. Ext. Info. Bull. 186, 10 p.
  12. KITINOJA, L. and J.F. Thompson. 2010. Pre-cooling systems for small-scale producers. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 2:2, 14p.
  13. LINDSAY, R.T., M.A. Neale and H.J.M. Messer.  1975. Cooling produce in large pallet-based boxes. J. Agric. Engr. Res. 20:235-243.
  14. O BRIEN, M. and J.P. Gentry. 1967. Effect of cooling methods on cooling rates and accompanying desiccation of fruits. Trans. ASAE 10:603-606.
  15. PARSONS, R.A. and R.F. Kasmire. 1974. Forced-air unit to rapidly cool small lots of packaged produce. Univ. Calif. Coop. Ext. OSA 272, 2 p.
  16. PARSONS, R.A., F.G. Mitchell, and G. Mayer. 1970. Forced-air cooling of palletized fresh fruit. Trans. ASAE 15:729-731.
  17. SARGENT, S.A., M.T. Talbot and J.K. Brecht. 1989. Evaluating precooling methods for vegetable packinghouse operations. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 101:175-182.
  18. STEWART, J.K. and H.M. Couey. 1963. Hydrocooling vegetables - a practical guide to predicting final temperatures and cooling times. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 637, 32 p.
  19. THOMPSON, J.F. and R.F. Kasmire. 1981. An evaporative cooler for vegetable crops. Calif. Agric. 35(3&4): 20-21.
  20. THOMPSON, J.F., F.G. Mitchell, T.R. Rumsey, R.F. Kasmire, and C.H. Crisosto.   1998. Commercial cooling of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Publ. 21567, Univ. Calif. Div. Nat. Resources, Oakland, CA, 61 p.
  21. THOMPSON, J.F. and P. Singh. 2008. Status of energy use and conservation technologies used in fruit and vegetable cooling operations in California. California Energy Commission, PIER Program. CEC-400-1999-005.
  22. THOMPSON, J.F., D.C. Mejia, and R.P. Singh. 2010. Energy use of commercial forced-air coolers for fruit. Appl. Eng. In Agric. 26: 919-924.
  23. VALLONE, S., H. Sivertsen, G.E. Anthon, D.M. Barrett, E.J. Mitcham, S.E. Ebeler, F. Zakharov. 2013. An integrated approach for flavor quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening. Food Chemisty 139:171-183.
  24. VANBEEK, G. and H.F.T. Meffert. 1981. Cooling of horticultural produce with heat and mass transfer by diffusion. In: S. Thorne (ed.), Developments in Food Preservation, Appl. Sci. Publ., Barking, UK, pp. 39-92.
  25. VIGNEAULT, C., T.J. Rennie, and V. Toussaint. 2008. Cooling of cut and freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Review 2008, 3:4, 10pp.
  26. WADE, N.L.1984. Estimation of the refrigeration capacity required to cool horticultural produce. In. J. Refrig. 7:358-366.
  27. WANG, J.K. and H.M. Gitlin. 1964. Vacuum coolers: principles and design criteria.  Univ. Hawaii Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 69, 36 p.
  28. WATKINS, J.B. and S. Ledger. 1990. Forced-air cooling (2nd edition). Queensland Dept. of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Australia, 64 p.




  1. ANDERSON, D.M. 1970. United effort for unitization. United Fresh Fruit and Veg. Assoc. Yb., Washington, D.C., pp. 161-162.
  2. ANON. 1985. The transport of perishable foodstuffs. Shipowners Refrigerated Cargo Research Association. Cambridge, UK, 50 p.
  3. ASHBY, B.H., R.T. Hinsch, L.A. Risse, W.G. Kindya, W.L. Craig, Jr., and M. T. Turczyn. 1987. Protecting perishable foods during transport by truck. USDA, Agric. Handb. 669, 94 p.
  4. BIALES, A. and J.P. Anthony, Jr.1971. Problems in palletized transport of Florida fresh vegetables. USDA, ARS 52-51.
  5. BOYES, W.W. 1965. Perishable commodities which may be stowed in the same ship spaces or hatches without danger of cross taint. In. Inst. Refrig. Bull. Sup. 5:285-292, 296-298.
  6. BREAKIRON, P.L.1974. A definitive approach to engineering-improved refrigerated trailer vans and containers. Trans. ASAE 17:38-41, 45.
  7. FERRAR, P.  1988. Transport of fresh fruit and vegetables: Proceedings of a workshop held at CSIRO Food Research Laboratory, North Ryde, Sydney, Australia, 5-6 February 1987. ACIAR Proceedings No. 23, 77 p.
  8. FINNEY, E.E., JR. (ed.). 1981. Transportation and marketing in agriculture. I.  Food commodities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 384 p.
  9. GARRETT, al. 1988. Postharvest handling: Transportation aspects. Univ. Calif. Agric. Issues Center Report, 28p
  10. HARVEY, J.M. 1981. Optimum environments for the transport of fresh fruits and vegetables. In. J. Refrig. 4:293-298.
  11. HEAP, R, M Kierstan, and G. Ford (eds.). 1998. Food transportation. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, 242 p.
  12. HINDS, R.H., Jr. and A.J. Bongers. 1977. Highway and railroad equipment  for transporting perishables in Europe. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 1061, 15 p.
  13. HINSCH,  R.T.,  D.C. Slaughter, W.L. Craig, and J.F. Thompson. 1993. Vibration  of fresh  fruits and vegetables during refrigerated truck transport. Trans. ASAE 36:1039-1042.
  14. HUI, K.P.C., G.S.V. Raghavan, C. Vigneault, and L.R. de Castro. 2006. Evaluation of the air circulation uniformity inside refrigerated semi-trailer transporting fresh horticultural produce. J. Food Agric. Env. 4:109-114.
  15. KASMIRE, R.F., R.T. Hinsch, and J.F. Thompson. 1996. Maintaining optimum perishable product temperatures in truck shipments. Univ. Calif., Postharvest Horticulture Series No. 12, 11 p.
  16. LIPTON, W.J.  and J.M. Harvey. 1972. Compatibility of fruits and vegetables during transport in mixed loads. USDA, ARS 51-48, 4 p.
  17. MAXIE, E.C., F.G. Mitchell and N.F. Sommer. 1966. Air transport of perishables. HortScience 1:86-88.
  18. McGREGOR, B.M. 1987. Tropical products transport handbook. USDA, Agric. Hb. 668, 148 p.
  19. MITCHELL, F.G., G. Mayer and C.H. Campbell. 1968. Solid/spaced, a new car loading pattern for tight-fill packed fruit. Calif. Agric. 22(12):2-5.
  20. O BRIEN, M., L.L. Claypool, S.J. Leonard, G.K. York, and J.H. MacGillivray.   1963. Causes of fruit bruising on transport trucks. Hilgardia 35:113-124.
  21. REDIT, W.H. 1969. Protection of rail shipments of fruits and vegetables. USDA, Agric. Hb. 195, 98 p.
  22. REID, M.S. and S. Serek. 1999. Guide to food transport - controlled atmosphere. Mercantila Publishers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 153 p.
  23. RISSE, L.A., W.R. Miller, and T. Moffitt.  1982.  Shipping fresh fruits and vegetables in mixed loads to the Caribbean. USDA, Adv. Agr. Tech. Bull. AAT-S-27, 10 p.
  24. THOMPSON, J.F., P.E. Brecht, T. Hinsch, and A.A. Kader. 2000. Marine container transport of chilled perishable produce. Publication 21595 & Poster (21596), Agr. Nat. Res., Univ. of Calif., Oakland, CA 32 p.
  25. THOMPSON, J.F., P.E. Brecht, and T. Hinsch. 2002. Refrigerated trailer transport of perishable products. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 21614, 28 pp.
  26. THOMPSON, J.F., C.F.H. Bishop, and P.E, Brecht. 2004. Air transport of perishable products. Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Resources Publ. 21618, 22p.
  27. UNITED FRESH PRODUCE ASSOCIATION. 2012. Produce transportation best practices. North America Produce Transportation working Group, 22 p.
  28. VIGNEAULT, C., J. Thompson, S. Wu., K.P.C. Hui, and D.I. LeBlanc. 2009. Transportation of fresh horticultural produce. Postharv. Technol. Hort. Crops 2:1-24.
  29. WELBY, E.M. and B.M. McGregor.1997. Agricultural export transportation workbook. USDA, Agr. Handb. 700, 318 p.



  1. BOGARDUS, R.K. and R.T. Ferris. 1961. Receiving fruits and vegetables in wholesale warehouses. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 478, 45 p.
  2. FERRIS, R.T. and R.K. Bogardus. 1964. Storing fruits and vegetables on pallets in wholesale warehouses. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 622, 38 p.
  3. KORITAS, J.J. 1969. Packaging produce in trays at the central warehouse.  USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 827, 30 p.
  4. MITTENDORF, H.J. 1976. Planning of urban wholesale markets for perishable food. FAO, Rome, 174 p.
  5. THOMPSON, J. A. Kader and K. Sylva. 1996. Compatibility chart for fruits and vegetables in short-term transport or storage. Univ. Calif. DANR Publ. 21560.



  1. ANDERSON, D.L. and P.F. Shaffer. 1964. Improved methods of trimming produce in retail food stores. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 192.
  2. ANDERSON, D.L., P.F.  Shaffer, J.J. Karitas and G. Flynn. 1963. Principles of layout for retail produce operations. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 590.
  3. California Department of Public Health. 2011. Retail fruit & vegetable marketing guide. Network for a Healthy California (
  4. HRUSCHKA, H.W. 1977. Postharvest weight loss and shrivel in five fruits and five vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 1059, 23 p.
  5. KRETCHMAN, D.W. 1973. Care and handling of fresh fruits and vegetables in retail markets. Produce Mktg. Assoc. Yb., pp. 96, 98.
  6. LEWIS, W.E. 1957. Maintaining produce quality in retail stores. USDA, Agric. Hb. 117, 30 p.
  7. NATIONAL-AMERICAN WHOLESALE GROCER'S ASSOCIATION AND THE PRODUCE MARKETING ASSOCIATION.1987. Professional Produce Manager's Manual, 2nd Ed., PMA, Newark, Delaware, 127 p.
  8. PRODUCE MARKETING ASSOCIATION. 1996. Fresh produce manual. PMA, Newark, DE, 250 p.
  9. UNITED FRESH FRUIT & VEGETABLE ASSOCIATION. 1982. Handbook of retailing fruits and vegetables. United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, Alexandria, VA, 92 p.



  1. BERBERICH, R.S.  1974. Effective fruit and vegetable marketing. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 1024, 36 p.
  2. CALVIN, L., S. Thornsbury, R. Cook. 2012. Recent trends in the fresh tomato market. Ecnomic research service, 350: 26-35.  
  3. CALYIN, L. and R. Cook (coordinators), M. Denbaly, C. Dimitri, L. Glaser, C. Handy, M. Jekanowski, P.  Kaufman, B. Krissoff, G. Thompson, and s. Thornsbury. 2001. U.S. Fresh fruit and vegetable marketing: emerging trade practices, trends, and issues. U.S. Dept. Agr., Econ. Res. Serv., Agr. Econ. Rept. No. 795, 52 pp.
  4. CARTER, H.O. and C.F. Nuckton (eds.). 1987. Marketing California specialty crops: Worldwide competition and constraints. Agric. Issues Center, Univ. of Calif., Davis, 176 p.
  5. COOK, R.L. 2011a. Fundamental forces affecting U.S. fresh produce growers and marketers. Choices 26(4): 13 pp.
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  7. COOK, R.L. 2011c. Eye on economics: much more than dollars and cents- Tracking consumption trends and buyer preferences. Blueprints (October, 2011): 86-90.
  8. COOK, R.L. 2012. Eye on economics: three part series: fundamental forces affecting growers and marketers. Part 1: size, proximity and category management for fresh produce. Blueprints (Jan/Feb/Mar 2012): 65-68.
  9. COOK, R.L. 2012. Eye on economics: three parts series: Fundamental forces affecting growers and marketers. Part 2: The dynamic U.S. berry sector. Blueprints (Apr/May/Jun 2012) 70-72.
  10. COOK, R.L. 2012. The lettuce/leafy greens sector; eye on economics, part 3 of a three part series: fundamental forces affecting growers and marketers. Blueprints (Jul/Aug/Sep 2012): 65-68.
  11. CORINNE, J. 1987. Selected European markets for specialty and tropical fruit and vegetables. TDRI Rept. No. G201, ODNRI, London, UK, 95 p.
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K. Processing

  1. BARRETT, D.M. and B. Lloyd. 2011. Advanced preservation methods and nutrient retention in fruits and vegetables. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:7-22.
  2. CHAUDHRY, Q. and L. Castle. 2011. Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:595-603.
  3. CUSHEN, M., J. Kerry, M. Morris, M. Cruz-Romero, and E. Cummins. 2012. Nanotechnologies in the food industry- Recent developments, risks and regulation. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:30-46.
  4. OMS-OLIU, G., I. Odriozola-Serrano, R. Soliva-Fortuny, P. Elez-Martinez, and O. Martin-Belloso. 2012. Stability of health-related compounds in plant foods through the application of non-thermal processes. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 23:111-123.

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