University of California

Section 7



Image: Quality and Quality Evaluation


  1. ABBOTT, J.A., 1999. Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. Postharv. Biol. Technol 15:207-225.
  2. ABBOTT, J.A., R., Lu, B.L. Upchruch, and R. Stroshine. 1997. Technologies for nondestructive quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Hort. Rev. 20:1-120.
  3. ARTHEY, V.D. 1975. Quality of horticultural products. Halstead Press, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 228 p.
  4. BALDWIN, E.A., A. Plotto, and K. Goodner. 2007. Shelf-life versus flavour-life for fruits and vegetables: how to evaluate this complex trait. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007,1:3, 10pp.
  5. BUESCHER, R., L. Howard, and P.  Dexter. 1999. Postharvest enhancement of fruits and vegetables for improved human health. HortScience 34:1167-1170.
  6. CHEN, P. and Z. Sun. 1991. A review of non-destructive methods for quality evaluation and sorting of agricultural products. J. Agric. Engng. Res. 49:85-98.
  7. DAMATTA, F.M., A. Grandis, B.C. Arenque, and M.S. Buckeridge. 2010. Impact of climate changes on crop physiology and food quality. Food Res. Int. 43:1814-1823.
  8. DE ELL, J.R., O. Van Kooten, R.K. Prange, and D.P. Murr. 1998. Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques techniques in postharvest physiology. Hort.  Rev. 23:69:107.
  9. ELMASRY, G., A. Nassar, N. Wang, and C. Vigneault. 2008. Spectral methods for measuring quality changes of fresh fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest review 2008, 4:3, 13pp.
  10. FERGUSON, I., R. Volz, and A. Woolf. 1999. Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit. Postharv. Biol. Technol 15:255-262.
  11. FLORKOWSKI, W.J., S.E.  Prussia, and R.L. Shewfelt (eds). 2000. Integrated view of  fruit  and  vegetable quality. Technomic Publ., Lancaster, PA, 342 p.
  12. GOODENOUGH, P.W. and R.K. Atkin (eds.). 1981. Quality in stored and processed vegetables and fruit. Academic Press, New York, NY, 398 p.
  13. HERTOG, M.L., J. Lammertyn, B. Deketelaere, N. Scheerlinck, and B.M. Nicolai. 2007. Managing quality variance in the postharvest food chain. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 18: 320-332.
  14. HEWETT, E.W. 2006. An overview of preharvest factors influencing Postharvest quality of horticultural products. Int. J. Postharv. Technol. Innov. 1: 4-15.
  15. JEN, J.J. (ed.). 1989. Quality factors of fruits and vegetables-chemistry and technology. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., ACS Series 405, 410 p.
  16. JORDON, J.E. (ed.). 1990. Workshop on measuring consumer perception of internal product quality. Acta Hort. 259:1- 174.
  17. KADER, A. and M.  Cantwell. 2006. Produce quality rating scales and color charts. Postharvest Horticulture Series No. 23, Postharvest Technology Center, University of California, Davis.
  18. KADER, A. and M. Cantwell. 2007. Produce quality rating scales and color charts. Postharvest Horticulture Series No. 23 (revised May, 2007), Postharvest Technology Center, University of California, Davis.
  19. KADER, A.A. 2008. Perspective: flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. J. Sci. Food Agr. 88:1863-1868.
  20. KANLAYANARAT, S., E.W. Hewett, and I.B. Ferguson (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the Europe- Asia Symposium on Quality Management in Postharvest Systems- Eurasia 2007. Acta Hort. 804, 96 articles.
  21. KAYS, S.J. 1999. Preharvest factors affecting appearance. Postharv. Biol. Technol 15:233-247.
  22. KEMSLEY, E.K., H.S. Tapp, R. Binns, R.O. Mackin, and A.J. Peyton. 2008. Feasibility study of NIR diffuses optical tomography on agricultural produce. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 48:223-230.
  23. LI, Z., N. Wang, and C. Vigneault. 2006. Electronic nose and electronic tongue in food production and processing. Stewart Postharvest Review 2006, 4:7, 6pp.
  24. LIPTON, W.J. 1980. Interpretation of quality evaluations of horticultural crops.  HortScience 15:64-66.
  25. MARCHANT, J.A. 1990. Computer vision for produce inspection. Postharvest News and Information 1(1):19-22.
  26. MATTHEIS, J.P. and J.K. Fellman. 1999. Preharvest factors influencing flavor of fresh fruit and vegetables. Postharv. Biol. Technol 15:227-232.
  27. MIZRACH, A. 2008. Ultrasonic technology for quality evaluation of fresh fruit and vegetables in pre- and postharvest processes. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 48:315-330.
  28. MORRETTI, C.L., L.M. Mattos, A.G. Calbo, and S.A. Sargent. 2010. Climate changes and potential impacts on postharvest quality of fruit and vegetable crops: A review. Food Res. Int. 43:1824-1832.
  29. NATURAL RESOURCES INSTITUTE. 1994. Manual for horticultural export quality assurance. Catham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.
  30. NICOLAI, B.M. and J. DeBaerdemaeker (eds.). 1998. Food quality modelling (EUR 18183). Luxomborg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities. 253 p.
  31. NICOLAI, B.M., K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K. Theron, and J. Lammertyn. 2007. Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: a review. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 46: 99-118.
  32. NUNES, M.C.N. 2008. Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Blackwell Publ., Ames, Iowa
  33. PATTEE, H.E. (ed.). 1985. Evaluation of quality of fruits and vegetables. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, 410 p.
  34. PAULL, R.E. 1999. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on fresh commodity quality. Postharv. Biol. Technol 15:263-277.
  35. PELEG, M. and E.B. Bagley. 1983. Physical properties of food. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, 531 p.
  36. PURVIS A.C., W.B. McGlasson, and S. Kanlayanarat (editors). 2006. Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains- The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality. Acta Hort. 712, 2 volumes, 123 articles.
  37. RUDELL, D. 2010. Standardizing postharvest quality and biochemical phenotyping for precise population comparison. HortScience 45:1307-1309.
  38. SAM, C.E. 1999. Preharvest factors affecting postharvest texture. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 15:249-254.
  39. SHARPLES, R.O. 1985. The influence of preharvest conditions on the quality of stored fruits. Acta Hort. 157:93-104.
  40. SHEWFELT, R.L. 1999. What is quality? Postharv. Biol. Technol. 15:197-200.
  41. TERANISHI, R. and H. Barrerabenibez (eds.). 1981. Quality of selected fruits and vegetables of North America. Adv. Chem. Ser. Vol. 170, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 240 p.
  42. TILLETT, R.D., J.A. Marchant Q. Yang, C.R. Bull, and R. Zwiggelaar. 1995. Sensing quality above and below the surface. Postharvest News and Information 6: 33N-34N.
  43. WATADA, A.E. 1989. Non-destructive methods of evaluating quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. Actam Hort. 258:321-329.



  1. ABBOTT, J.W. 1972. Sensory assessment of food texture. Food Tech. 26(1):40-49. 
  2. AMERINE, M.A., R.M. Pangborn, and E.B. Roessler.1965. Principles of sensory evaluation of food. Academic Press, NY.
  3. ANON. 1968. Basic principles of sensory evaluation. Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 433, Amer. Soc. for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. ANON. 1968. Manual on sensory testing methods. Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 434, Amer. Soc. for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. ANON. 1968. Correlation of subjective-objective methods in the study of odors and taste. Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 440, Amer. Soc. for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  6. ANON. 1973. Sensory evaluation of appearance of materials.  Spec. Tech. Publ.  No. 545, Amer. Soc.  for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 195 p.
  7. HEINTZ, C.M. and A.A. Kader. 1983. Procedures for the sensory evaluation of horticultural crops. HortScience 18:18-22.
  8. JORDAN, R.B., R.J. Seelye, and V.A. McGlone. 2001.  A sensory-based alternative to Brix/acid ratio. Food Technol. 55(6):35-44.
  9. KRAMER, A. 1973. An analytical and integrative approach to sensory evaluation of foods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 24:1407-1418.
  10. LARMOND, E. 1970. Methods for sensory evaluation of food. Canada Dept. Agric. Publ. 1284, 57 p.
  11. MOSKOWITZ, H. 1988. Applied sensory analysis of foods. Volumes I & II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  12. O MAHONY, M. 1986. Sensory evaluation of food: Statistical methods and procedures. Marcel Dekker, New York, 487 p.
  13. POWERS, J.J. and H.R. Moskowitz (eds.). 1976. Correlating sensory objective measurements - new methods for answering old problems. Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 594, Amer. Soc. for Testing & Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  14. SCHAEFER, E.E. (ed.). 1979. ASTM Manual on consumer sensory evaluation. Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 682, Amer. Soc. Test. & Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  15. STEVENS, M.A. and M. Albright. 1980. An approach to sensory evaluation of horticultural commodities. HortScience 15:48-50.
  16. STONE, H. and J.L. Sidel. 1985. Sensory evaluation practices. Academic Press, Orlando, 311 p. See also: VI I14, VII D1, VII D14, and VII D24.
  17. VALLONE, S., H. Sivertsen, G.E. Anthon, D.M. Barrett, E.J. Mitcham, S.E. Ebeler, F. Zakharov. 2013. An integrated approach for flavour quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening. Food Chemisty 139:171-183.



  1. AULENBACH, B.B., J.N. Yeatman, and J.T. Worthington. 1972. Quality sorting of Red Delicious apples by light transmission. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 936, 21 p.
  2. BIRTH, G.S. 1979. Radiometric measurement of food quality -- A review. J. Food Sci. 44:949-953, 957.
  3. CLYDESDALE, F.M. 1976. Instrumental techniques for color measurement of foods. Food Technol. 30:52-59.
  4. DULL, G.G., G.S. Birth, and J.B. Magee. 1980. Nondestructive evaluation of internal quality. HortScience 15:60-63.
  5. FRANCIS, F.J. 1980. Color quality evaluation of horticultural crops. HortScience 15:58-59.
  6. FRANCIS, F.J. and F.M. Clydesdale. 1975. Food Colorimetry: Theory and applications.  AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, 477 p.
  7. GUNASEKARAN, S. 1990. Delayed light emission as a means of quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 29:19-34.
  8. HUNTER, R.S. 1975. The measurement of appearance, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 348 p.
  9. JAHN, O.L. and J.J. Gaffney. 1972. Photoelectric color sorting of citrus fruit.  USDA, Tech. Bull. 1448, 56 p.
  10. WARD, G., and A. Nussinovitch. 1996. Gloss properties surface morphology relationships of fruits. J. Food Sci. 61: 973-977.



  1. BOURNE, M.C. 1979. Texture of temperate fruits. J. Text. Stud. 10:25-44.
  2. BOURNE, M.C. 1979. Fruit texture: An overview of trends and problems. J. Text. Stud. 10:83-92.
  3. BOURNE, M.C. 1980. Texture evaluation of horticultural crops. HortScience 15:51-57.
  4. BOURNE, M.C. 1982. Food texture and viscosity: Concept and measurement. Academic Press, New York,325 p.
  5. DELWICHE, M. and Y. Sarig. 1991. A probe impact sensor for fruit firmness measurement. Trans. ASAE 34:187-192.
  6. DEMAN, J.M. et al. 1976. Rheology and texture in food quality. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, 588 p.
  7. DIENER, R.G., F.E. Sobotka, and A.E. Watada. 1971. An accurate, low cost firmness measuring instrument. J. Text. Stud. 2:373-384.
  8. DULL, G.G. and G.F. Leeper. 1975 Ultrastructure of polysaccharides in relation to texture. In: N.F. Haard and D.K. Salunkhe (eds.), Symposium: Postharvest biology and handling of fruits and vegetables. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT, pp. 55-61.
  9. FINNEY, E.E. JR. 1972. Vibration techniques for testing fruit firmness. J. Text. Stud. 3:263-283.
  10. HALLER, M.H.  1941. Fruit pressure testers and their practical applications. USDA, Circ. 627, 21 p.
  11. HAMANN, D.D. and K.C. Diehl. 1978. Rheology of soft fleshy fruit. Food Technol. 32:57-61.
  12. HARKER, F.R., R.J. Redgwell, I.G. Hallett, S.H. Murray, and G. Carter.  1997.  Texture of fresh fruit.  Hort. Rev. 20:121-224.
  13. ILKER, R. and A.S. Szczesniak.1990. Structural and chemical bases for texture of plant foodstuffs. J. Text. Stud. 21:1-36.
  14. KRAMER, A. and A.S. Szczesniak (eds.). 1973. Texture measurements of foods.  D. Reidel Publ.Co., Dordrect, Holland.
  15. MACKEY, A.C., M.M. Hard, and M.V. Zaehringer. 1973. Measuring textural characteristics of fresh fruits and vegetables - apples, carrots, cantaloupe, a manual of selected procedures. Oregon Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 123, 39 p.
  16. MIZRACH, A. 2008. Quality assessment using ultrasound. Stewart Postharv. Rev. 4(5): 9pp.
  17. REEVE, R.M. 1970. Relationships of histological structure to texture of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. J. Text. Stud. 1:247-284.
  18. SCHOMER, H.A., K.L. Olson, and J.N. Yeatman.1963. A mechanical-thumb for measuring firmness of fruits. USDA, Mktg. Bull. 25, 4 p.
  19. SHERMAN, P. 1979. Food texture and rheology.  Academic Press, London, 456 p.
  20. STERLING, C. 1975. Anatomy of toughness in plant tissues. In: N.F. Haard and D.K. Salunkhe (eds.), Symposium: Postharvest biology and handling of fruits and vegetables. AVI Publ. Co, Westport, CT, pp. 43-54.
  21. SUBEDI, P.P. and K.B. Walsh. 2009. Non-invasive techniques for measurement of fresh fruit firmness. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 51:297-304.
  22. SZCZESNIAK, A.S. 1977. An overview of recent advances in food texture research. Food Technol. 31(4):71-75, 90.
  23. SZCZESNIAK, A.S. and R. Ilker. 1988. The meaning of textural characteristics--juiciness in plant food stuffs. J. Text. Stud. 19:61-78.
  24. TIWARI, G., D.C. Slaughter, M. Cantwell. 2013. Nondestructive maturity determination in green tomatoes using a handheld visible and near infrared instrument. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 86:221-229.
  25. VANBUREN, J. 1970. Current concepts on the texture of fruits and vegetables.  CRC Crit. Rev. Food Technol. 1:5-24.
  26. VOISEY, P.W. 1975. Instrumentation for determination of mechanical properties of foods. In: yun Rha (ed.), Theory, determination and control of physical properties of food materials.  D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 63-130.
  27. WALDRON, K.W., A.C. Smith, A.J. Parr, A. Ng and M.L. Parker.  1997.  New approaches to understanding and controlling cell separation in relation to fruit and vegetable texture. Trends in Food Sci. & Technol. 8:213-221.



  1. FINNEY, E.E., JR. and D.R. Massie. 1975. Instrumentation for testing the response of fruits to mechanical impact. Trans. ASAE 18:1184-1187 and 1192.
  2. FLUCK, R.C. and E.M. Ahmed. 1973. Impact testing of fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 16:660-666.
  3. MCCARTHY, M.J., P. Chen, and R. Kauten. 1989. NMR for internal quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 32:1747-1753.
  4. MILLER, A.R. 1992. Physiology, biochemistry and detection of bruising (mechanical stress) in fruits and vegetables. Postharvest News & Information 3:53N-58N.
  5. MOHSENIN, N. 1970. Physical properties of plant and animal materials. Vol. 1. Structural, physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Gordon Breach Sci. Publ., NY, 734 p.
  6. O'BRIEN, M., R.B. Fridley, J.R. Goss, and J.F. Schubert. 1973. Telemetry for investigating forces on fruits during handling. Trans. ASAE 16:245-247.
  7. STEPHENSON, K.Q., C.A. Rotz, and M. Singh. 1979. Selective sorting by resonance techniques. Trans. ASAE 22:279-282.
  8. TOLLNER, E.W. 1993. X-ray technology for detecting physical quality attributes in agricultural produce. Postharvest News and Information 4:149N-155N.
  9. WILKERSON, E.D., G.E. Anthon, D.M. Barrett, G.F.G. Sayajon, A.M. Santos, L.E. Rodriguez-Saona. 2013. Rapid assessment of quality parameters in processing tomatoes using hand-held and benchtop infrared spectrometers and multivariate analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:2088-2095.
  10. ZAPP, H.R., S.H. Ehlert, G.K. Brown, P.R. Armstrong, and S.S. Sober. 1990.  Advanced instrumental sphere (IS) for impact measurements. Trans. ASAE 33:955-960.


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