University of California

Section 9



Image: Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Commodities


  1. BALDWIN, E.A., A. Plotto, and K. Goodner. 2007. Shelf-life versus flavour-life for fruits and vegetables: how to evaluate this complex trait. Stewart Postharvest Review 2007, 1:3, 10pp.
  2. CAMPBELL, C.A.1994. Handling of Florida-grown and imported fruits and vegetables. HortScience 29:975 978.
  3. HEWETT, E.W., S. Lurie, and J.N. Wuensche (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Postharvest Technology in the Globalisation of Horticulture. Acta Hort. 768, 80 articles.
  4. HERREGODS, M. (ed.). 1989. International symposium on postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables. Acta Hort. 258:1-667.
  5. HERTOG, M.L., J. Lammertyn, B. Deketelaere, N. Scheerlinck, and B.M. Nicolai. 2007. Managing quality variance in the postharvest food chain. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 18: 320-332.
  6. KADER, A. and M. Cantwell. 2007. Produce quality rating scales and color charts. Postharvest Horticulture Series No. 23 (revised May, 2007), Postharvest Technology Center, University of California, Davis.
  7. KUSHWAHA, L., R. Serwatowski, and R. Brook (eds.). 1995. Harvest and postharvest technologies for fresh fruit and vegetables. Proceedings of the International Conference; Guanajuato, Mexico; Feb.20-24, 1995, 652 p.
  8. LI, Z., N. Wang, and C. Vigneault. 2006. Electronic nose and electronic tongue in food production and processing. Stewart Postharvest Review 2006, 4:7, 6pp.
  9. NASH, M.J. 1978. Crop conservation and storage in cool temperature climates.  Pergamon Press, NY, 396 p.
  10. NUNES, M.C.N. 2008. Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Blackwell Publ., Ames, Iowa.
  11. O BRIEN, M., R.B. Fridley and L.L. Claypool. 1978. Food losses in harvest and handling systems for fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 21:386-390.
  12. PANTASTICO, Er. B. and O.K. Bautista. 1976. Postharvest handling of tropical vegetable crops. HortScience 11:122-124.
  13. THOMPSON, J. and A. Kader. 2009. From the farm to your table, a consumer’s guide to fresh fruits and vegetables. Publ. 21643, Agric. Nat. Resour., Univ. Calif., Oakland, CA, USA, 16pp. 
  14. WALLNER, S.J. and P.A. Ferretti. 1978. Postharvest handling and storage of vegetables and berries for fresh market. Pennsylvania State Univ., Agric. Ext. Serv. Special Circ. 247, 15 p.
  15. YADOLLAHI, A., K. Arzani, and H. Khoshghalb. 2010. The role of nanotechnology in horticultural crops postharvest management. Acta Hort. 875:49-56.




  1. ASAE. 1984. Fruit, nut, and vegetable harvesting mechanization. ASAE Publ. 5-84, Amer. Soc. Agric.Eng., St. Joseph, MI, 411 p.
  2. CARGILL, B.F. and G.E. Rossmiller (eds.). 1969. Fruit and vegetable harvest  mechanization - technological implications, RMS Report 16, Rural Manpower Center, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, 838 p.
  3. FAIRBANK, W.C., L.L. Ede, H. Johnson, Jr., D.A.  Luvisi, and R.A. Neja. 1987. Night picking. Calif. Agric. 41(1&2):13-16.
  4. GRIERSON, W. and W.C. Wilson.  1983.  Influence of mechanical harvesting on citrus quality: cannery vs. fresh fruit crops. HortScience 18:407-409.
  5. KADER, A.A. 1983. Influence of harvesting methods on quality of deciduous tree fruits. HortScience 18:409-411.
  6. KASMIRE, R.F. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on quality of nonfruit vegetables. HortScience 18:421-423.
  7. LI, B, C. Vigneault and N. Wang. 2010. Research development of fruit and vegetable harvesting robots in China. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:13, 8p.
  8. MORRIS, J.R. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on quality of small fruits and grapes. HortScience 18:412-417.
  9. MORRIS, J.R. 1990. Fruit and vegetable harvest mechanization. Food Technol. 44(2):97-101.
  10. PETERSON, D.L. 1992. Harvest mechanization for deciduous tree fruits and brambles. HortTechnology 2:85-88.
  11. SARIG, Y. 1993. Robotics of fruit harvesting - a state-of-the-art review. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 54:265-280.
  12. STUDER, H.E. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on the quality of fruit vegetables. HortScience 18:417-421.
  13. VIGNEAULT, C. and N. Wang. 2010. Perspectives of robotic technology in production, harvesting and postharvest processes of horticultural produce. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:10, 4 p.




  1. ANON. Various dates. Standardization of fruits and vegetables. Organization  for  Economic  Cooperation and Development, Paris.
  2. ANON. Various dates. U.S. Standards for grades of fresh fruits and vegetables. USDA, Food Safety and Quality Service, Washington, D.C.
  3. ANON. 1983. Fruit and vegetable quality control standardization. Extracts from the Administrative Code - Title 3 of California, Dept. Food and Agric., Sacramento, CA, 154 p.
  4. KONDO, N. 2010. Automation on fruit and vegetable grading system and food traceability. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:145-152.
  5. LI, Z, C. Vigneault and N. Wang. 2010. Automation and robotics in fresh horticulture produce packinghouse. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:13, 7p.
  6. MALDONADO, A. I.L. 2010. Automation and robots for handling, storing and transporting fresh horticulture produce. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:14, 6p.




  1. AMARANTE, C. and N.H. Banks. 2001. Postharvest physiology and quality of coated fruits and vegetables. Hort. Rev. 26:161-238.
  2. BALDWIN, E.A1994. Edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: past, present, and future. p. 25-64, In: J.M. Krochta et al (eds.). Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA.
  3. BALDWIN, E.A., M.O. Nisperos-Carriedo, and R.A. Baker. 1995. Use of edible  coatings  to preserve quality of lightly (and slightly) processed products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35:509-524.
  4. Baldwin, E.A., R.D. Hagenmaier, and J. Bai (editors). 2012. Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality, Second Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  5. BANKS, N.H., J.G. M. Cutting, and S.E. Nicholson. 1997. Approaches to optimizing surface coatings for fruits. N.Z.J. Crop Hort Sci 25:261-272.
  6. BEN YEHOSHUA, S. 1985. Individual seal-packaging of fruit and vegetables in plastic film - a new postharvest technique. HortScience 20:32-38.
  7. DEBEAUFORT, F., J.A. QuezadaGallo, and A. Voilley. 1998. Edible films and coatings: tomorrow’s packagings: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 38:299-314.
  8. HAGENMAIER, R.D. 1998. Wax microemulsion formulations used as fruit coatings. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Coc. 111: 251-255.
  9. HAGENMAIER, R.D. and P.E. Shaw. 1992. Gas permeability of  fruit coating waxes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117:105-109.
  10. HARDENBURG, R.E.1967. Wax and related coatings for horticultural products. A bibliography. USDA,ARS 51-15.
  11. JAMES, K. and A. McGregor. 2000. Surface coatings for fresh fruit and freshly prepared fruits and vegetables. Postharv. News Info 11:45N-47N.
  12. KROCHTA, J.M., E.A.  Baldwin, and  M.  Nisperos-Carriedo (eds.). 1994. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA, 379 p. 
  13. LOPEZ, O., M. A. García and N.E. Zaritzky.2010. Novel sources of edible films and coatings. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:2, 8 p.
  14. McHUGH, T.H. J.M. Krochta. 1994. Permeability properties of edible films. p. 139-187, In: J.M. Krochta et al. (eds.). Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA.
  15. NUSSINOVITCH, A. and S. Lurie. 1995. Edible coatings for fruits and vegetables. Postharvest News and Information 6:53N-57N.
  16. PARK, H.J. 2000. Development of advanced edible coatings for fruits. Trends in Food Scie &Technol. 10:254-260.
  17. PEREZ- GAGO, M.B., G.A. González-Aguilar, and G.I. Olivas.2010. Edible coatings for fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:4, 14p.
  18. ROJAS-GRAU, M.A., R. Soliva-Fortuny and O. Martín-Belloso.2010. Edible coatings: past, present and future. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 3:1, 5p.




  1. ANON. 1961. Standardization of packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables.  Symp. Proc., Sprenger Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 224 p.
  2. ANON. 1973. Packing stations for fruits and vegetables. In. Inst. Refrig., Spec. Bull., 307 p.
  3. ARORA, A. and G.W. Padua.2010. Review: Nanocomposites in food packaging. J. Food Sci. 75: R43-R49.
  4. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau. 1984. ASEAN returnable container systems report. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 85 p.
  5. BAKKER, M. (ed.). 1986. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 746 p.
  6. BOUSTEAD, P.J. and J.H. New.1986. Packaging of fruit and vegetables: a study of models for the manufacture of corrugated fiberboard boxes in developing countries. TDRI Publication G199, TORI, London, 44 p.
  7. Bradley, E.L., L. Castle, and Q. Chaudhry. 2011. Applications of nanomaterials in food packaging with a consideration of opportunities for developing countries. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:604-610.
  8. FERNANDEZ, A., P. Piconet, and E. Lloret. 2010. Cellulose-silver nanoparticle hybrid materials to control spoilage-related microflora in absorbent pads located in trays of fresh-cut melon. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 142:222-228.
  9. GENTRY, J.P., F.G. Mitchell, and N.F. Sommer. 1965. Engineering and quality aspects of deciduous fruit packed by volume filling and hand placing methods. Trans. ASAE 8:584-589.
  10. GUILLOU, R. 1963. Settling packed fruit by vibration. Trans. ASAE 6:190,191,194.
  11. HARDENBURG, R.E. 1966. Packaging and protection. In: Protecting our food supply. USDA, Agric. Yb 1966:102-117.
  12. HARDENBURG, R.E.1974. Use of plastic films in maintaining quality of fresh fruits and vegetables during storage and marketing. ASHRAE Symposium Ch-73-7, pp. 19-29.
  13. HEISS, R.1970. Principles of food packaging. FAO and P. Keppler Verlag KG, West Germany, 332 p.
  14. INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTER. 1988. Manual on the packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables. ITC, UNCTAD/GATT, Geneva, Switzerland.
  15. MARSH, K.and B. Bugusu. 2007. Food packaging–roles, materials, and environmental issues. J. Food Sci.72: R39-R55.
  16. MILLER, W.R. and A.J. Bongers. 1983. Western European preferences for sizing, packaging, and unitizing selected fresh fruits and vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rept. No. 1135, 7p.
  17. MITCHELL, F.G., N.F. Sommer, J.P. Gentry, R. Guillou, and G.  Mayer. 1968. Tight-fill fruit packing. Univ. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Circ. 548, 24 p.
  18. O BRIEN, M., J.E. Gentry and R.C. Gibson. 1965. Vibrating characteristics of fruits as related to in-transit injury. Trans. ASAE 8:241-243.
  19. O BRIEN, M. and R. Guillou. 1969. An in-transit vibration simulator for fruit handling studies. Trans. ASAE 12:94-97.
  20. PITMAN, R.M. and M.E. Wright. 1973. Lateral pressures in bulk bins. Trans. ASAE 16:632-635, 638.
  21. SACHAROW, S. and R.C. Griffin. 1970. Food packaging. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT.
  22. SAYERS, J.C.A. and I. J. Sneddon. 1986. The use of returnable containers for horticultural produce. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau and National Materials Handling Bureau, Australia, 87 p.
  23. SELKE, S.E. 1990. Packaging and the environment: Alternatives, trends and solutions. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, PA 178 pp.
  24. STOKES, D.R. and G.W. Woodley.1974. Standardization of shipping containers for fruits and vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 991, 118 p.
  25. THOMPSON, J.F., D.C. Slaughter, and M.L. Arpaia. 2008. Suspended tray package for protecting soft fruit from mechanical damage. Appl. Eng. Agr. 24:71-75.
  26. VIGNEAULT, C., J. Thompson, and S. Wu. 2009. Designing container for handling fresh horticultural produce. Postharv. Technol. Hort. Crops 2:25-47.
  27. YANG, F.M., H.M. Li, F. Li, Z.H. Xin, L.Y. Zheng, and Q. H. Hu. 2010. Effect of nano- packing on preservation quality of fresh strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. Fengxiang) during storage at 4C. J. Food Sci. 75: C236-C2.



  1. ARCE, J. and V.E. Sweat. 1980. Survey of published heat transfer coefficients encountered  in food refrigeration processes. ASHRAE Trans. 86:235-260.
  2. BARGER, W.R. 1963. Vacuum precooling - a comparison of the cooling of different vegetables. USDA, Mktg. Res. Rpt. 600, 12 p.
  3. BENNETT, A.H. 1964. Precooling fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE 7:265-266, 270.
  4.  BENNETT, A.H., J. Soule, and G.E. Yost. 1965. A prototype commercial forced-air precooler. USDA, ARS 52-9,11 p.
  5. BOYETTE, M.D., L.G. Wilson and E.A. Estes. 1989. Design of room cooling facilities: structural and energy requirements. North Carolina State Univ. Coop. Ext. Bull. AG 414-2, 15 p.
  6. BROSNAN, T. and D. Sun. 2001. Precooling techniques and applications for horticultural products, a review. Int. J. Refrigeration 24: 154-170.
  7. CANTWELL, M.I., A. Thangaiah. 2012. Acceptable cooling delays for selected warm season vegetables and melons. M.I. cantwell and D.P.F. Alemeida Acta Hort. 934:77-84.
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  10. GUILLOU, R. 1963. Pressure cooling for fruits and vegetables. Amer. Soc. Heat., Refriger. and Air Cond. Engr. J. 5(11):45- 49.
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  12. KITINOJA, L. and J.F. Thompson. 2010. Pre-cooling systems for small-scale producers. Stewart Postharvest Review, 2010, 2:2, 14p.
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  25. VIGNEAULT, C., T.J. Rennie, and V. Toussaint. 2008. Cooling of cut and freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. Stewart Postharvest Review 2008, 3:4, 10pp.
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  1. ANDERSON, D.M. 1970. United effort for unitization. United Fresh Fruit and Veg. Assoc. Yb., Washington, D.C., pp. 161-162.
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K. Processing

  1. BARRETT, D.M. and B. Lloyd. 2011. Advanced preservation methods and nutrient retention in fruits and vegetables. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:7-22.
  2. CHAUDHRY, Q. and L. Castle. 2011. Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:595-603.
  3. CUSHEN, M., J. Kerry, M. Morris, M. Cruz-Romero, and E. Cummins. 2012. Nanotechnologies in the food industry- Recent developments, risks and regulation. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 22:30-46.
  4. OMS-OLIU, G., I. Odriozola-Serrano, R. Soliva-Fortuny, P. Elez-Martinez, and O. Martin-Belloso. 2012. Stability of health-related compounds in plant foods through the application of non-thermal processes. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 23:111-123.
College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Postharvest Technology Center
Department of Plant Sciences

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